Sickle cell disease prevents one of the body 's most fundamental re-sources, the blood, from adequately transporting oxygen to the tissue, which can result in organ damage and many other related complications. A sickle cell related "crisis" can be extremely painful for patients, and deadly in some cases. Both quality of life and life expectancy are reduced for sickle cell patients, even when the disease is optimally managed with existing therapies, blood transfusions, vitamin regimens and a host of other precautions. "An ISU student died March 12 from complications of Sickle Cell Anemia there is no cure for Sickle Cell Anemia" (Indiana Statesman 2004). Sickle cell disease is a group of disorders that affects hemoglobin.
Thrombocytopenia is a condition in which the body does not have a normal number of platelets in the blood. Blood is made up of three major cell types: red blood cells, which carry oxygen throughout the body; white blood cells, which help fight infection; and, platelets, which stick together at the site of a cut or wound to form a clot to stop the bleeding. People who have thrombocytopenia don’t have enough platelets to form a blood clot, and so they may bleed excessively when they are cut. (nhlbi.nih.gov, 2013) Blood cells and platelets are made in the bone marrow, which is the spongy tissue inside the bones. There may be certain factors that may interfere with the body’s normal ability to make platelets.
Transfusions can soothe symptoms connected with low RBC checks, for example, shortness of breath and extreme weakness. These symptoms are often seen in people with anemia, a condition in which your body can 't create enough red blood cells to supply the body organs with adequate oxygen to perform a healthy metabolic process. Platelet transfusion may be essential if you have a
The risk of developing pneumonia for those with COPD is greater due to already weakened lungs and the inability to filter bacteria and viruses. If treatment for pneumonia is prolonged, it can lead to physical changes within the lungs causing the exchange of oxygen to be greatly diminished and results in respiratory failure.
The narrowing of these arteries can lead to weakening of the left ventricle due to the increased workload; eventually the left ventricle cannot effectively pump, resulting in blood backing up into the lungs. The fluid is then forced into the blood, through the capillaries and into the alveoli; this is known as congestive heart failure (Mayo Clinic, 2014). Another cause of cardiogenic pulmonary edema is cardiomyopathy. Cardiomyopathy also causes a weakening in the ventricles. Unlike coronary artery disease which is a result of the narrowing of the arteries, cardiomyopathy is caused by damage to the cardiac muscle (Mayo Clinic, 2014).
Abstract Cystic fibrosis is a life-threatening, genetic disease that causes persistent lung infections, and complicates a person’s ability to breathe. People with Cystic fibrosis have troubles to breathe because a broken gene causes a thick, growth of mucus in the lungs, pancreas and other organs. The mucus blocks the air passage to the lungs, and traps bacteria leading to infections, considerable lung harm, and sooner or later, respiratory failure. In the pancreas, this mucus blocks the deliverance of digestive enzymes that allow the body to break down food and absorb vital nutrients. People with this disease used to have a life expectancy of 6 months back in 1938, but now with the advances of technology and medical treatments, life expectancy is approximately 35
Ataxia Telangiectasia Ataxia Telangiectasia (A-T) is an inherited disorder that affects the nervous system, immune system, and other systems of the body. The disorder usually progresses before the age of 5 and it makes it difficult for coordination and causes delayed development of motor skills like walking, problems with balancing, and using your hands to grab items etc. A person may even have slurred speech, sway when they walk and wobble. These problems can affect a person as they get older and the effects can become worse as the person ages. Effects vary with each patient some may have severe immunodeficiency in which they cannot produce antibodies to fight off disease.
Due to the malfunction in the glands that produce mucus, the lungs tend to accumulate thick mucus that eventually leads to infection, difficulty breathing and in severe cases a lung transplant or respiratory failure. This disease also effects the
(Genetics Home Reference, 2012). Signs and symptoms of haemophilia vary, depending on your level of clotting factors. If your clotting-factor level is mildly reduced, you may bleed only after surgery or trauma. If your deficiency is severe, you may experience spontaneous bleeding. Haemophilia is very hard to identify if someone is a carrier, the genetic disease will remain dormant until it is passed onto the offspring.
Buerger 's disease is are rare disease also known as thromboangiitis obliterans. This rare disease causes acute inflammation and thrombosis in the arteries and veins found on the body 's upper and lower extremities. Buerger 's disease causes clotting in the vessels; the obstruction of the vessels affects the tissues of the body by limiting the blood distribution. Due to the lack of blood, the body experiences pain and loss of tissue which leads to skin ulcerations. If the disease is extremely advanced it may also affect other vessels in the body that are not in the arms and legs (Mutukuro, Vishnu & Suresh, Kalkunte 56).
If symptoms occur the person should be taken an emergency room; respiratory distress can occur and the person would not have the ability to breathe voluntarily. Specific testing such as stool samples, gastric contents, or even testing suspected contaminated food, should be done to verify a diagnosis of botulism; reported cases of botulism number less than two hundred worldwide yearly and is often misdiagnosed as stroke or
Over time passes plaques may harden consequently restricting blood flow or completely blocking the artery. The build up of plaque is directly related to an individuals life style, common risk factors include obesity, high blood cholesterol and diabetes. When the endothelium is damaged by blood flow, the cholesterol and fats in the blood get stuck forming plaques. This results in high blood pressure due the heart attempting to supply required levels of blood to the body. If the blood flow to the heart muscles is restricted or blocked it may lead to further complications such as angina, heart attack or heart failure.
Due to this cell death, the brain undergoes significant shrinkage. The absence of certain chemicals that transmit signals (neurotransmitters) in the brain, such as choline, can also cause this disease . Because of this buildup, this disease gets