The Effect of Research-Informed Reflective Sessions on the Quantity and Quality of Teachers ' Corrective Feedback on Students’ Paragraph Writing Chapter Ι Background and Purpose Writing is the most complex skill for second language learners. This difficulty can not only be attributed to creating and organizing new ideas, but can also be extended to the ability to transfer ideas to the appropriate context (Richards &Rendayana, 2002). Many factors are involved in process of writing that intensify the complexity of writing skill. Factors like mastering the elements of grammar, vocabulary, mechanics, content, organization and style are only few areas to consider in second language writing process (Hyland, 2003).
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of explicit sight word instruction on the reading speed of elementary EFL students. Participants’ ability to read affects their daily lives in significant ways. Thus, effective pedagogical methods of reading instruction are imperative. Memorizing lists of words by sight is especially difficult for participants who need multiple exposures to successful. Therefore, it is necessary to see different ways to teach participants who visit for multiple repetitions in an approach that will not lead to ennui or frustration.
Overall, the advantages are more important than the disadvantages. The study of a foreign language is encouraged especially among the children. People who speak several languages change their perception of discussion topics based on the main features of the languages they know. If languages are used interchangeably in communication, the speaker will have alternately different communication concepts and implications. When we speak a language we often refer to a literary language or a common language.
This is attributed to boys’ attitude towards learning a foreign language. For boys, a foreign language subject is traditionally for women (Clark, 1995); thus, creating conflict between performed masculinities and language practice (Carr & Pauwels, 2006). Foreign or second language acquisition is also known to depend on the teaching approach of the educator. Some educational experts suggest that a natural approach is the most effective way of teaching. As opposed to rote learning, where students are asked to memorize words and focus on structures and rules, the natural approach is a process of learning that focuses more on language comprehension and terminology usage so that they can be used in communication (Terrel & Krashen, 1983).
Being a ‘language –based disability’ most learners do not have problems with oral language; the difficulty relies on the phonological aspect, essential when learning to read and write, as allows to manipulate and discriminate sounds at all language levels. Dyslexia covers a wide range of symptoms and even though they vary in every child, all of them have in common the difficulty of learning to read and therefore, to write properly. Despite the fact these two processes seem to go hand in hand, they are in fact, two different practices. When reading, there is a huge variability. For instance, some students may read very well but not understand the meaning of the text or perhaps they can decode and understand exactly what they are reading but with some difficulties, for example when performing reading aloud.
Writing in cursive is complicated; it takes effort and it requires meticulous hand movements. The movements might seem small, but they are very good for basic motor skills. When someone learns cursive, they strengthen their hand muscles and become better at basic tasks like tying shoes, buttoning buttons, and picking up objects. Additionally, students who learn cursive often score higher on reading and spelling tests; one could call cursive a mind and body workout. Equally important, learning cursive allows one to read cursive.
Since reading comprehension is important, so we should also be aware with some of the factors that can affect reading comprehension. Lenz also stated that reading comprehension can be affected from the quality of reading materials given to pupils (2016). What he meant here was that in some texts or passages, writers will be using some basic and simple words. However, some writers can also produce more complex reading material than others. That is why there are some cases where pupils are not able to retain meaning as they were given with complex passages.
Sometimes literature circles might become a monotonous and repetitive activity. For instance, Lloyd (2004, p. 115) and Calderón (2010, p. 27) complain that their students filled in their role sheets mechanically and some of them did not even participate in the discussions. Literature circles have to be lively and spontaneous, but above all, they should be in English. There is a possibility that EFL students use their first language to talk to each other, especially if the teacher is not present. For Hill (1992, p. 42), the students’ overuse of their mother tongue is one of the main issues of book discussions in EFL classes.
In the early elementary years, from first through third grades, children continue learning how to read. It is a complex process, difficult for some and easy for others. Care must be taken during these early years not to overemphasize the learning-to-read process. Reading for pleasure and information develops reading interests and offers children the opportunity to practice their reading skills in meaningful
They point out that extensive reading is entirely different from intensive reading in the sense that in intensive reading students normally work with short texts with close guidance from the teacher to help the students obtain detailed meaning from the text and to enhance vocabulary and grammar knowledge. The following characteristics are among the major characteristics of extensive reading: the students read large amount of material, students usually choose what they want to read, reading materials vary in terms of topic and genre, the materials that the students read is within their level of comprehension, students usually take part in post- reading activities, teachers usually read with their students to model enthusiasm for reading and finally teachers and students keep track of student
Fluency Fluency is the ability to read quickly, accurately, and with expression. When students become fluent readers they must be able to recognize most words automatically and be able to identify unfamiliar words. Automaticity is when readers recognize familiar words without thinking twice. Students also must be able to apply phonics to decode unfamiliar words. Readers also should be able to break longer words into syllables because it is easier to decode them.