They are two very well-known developmental theories. There are many differences and similarities between the two theories. They both believed that personality develops in certain stages. However Freud’s theory is psychosexual development whereas Erikson’s theory is psychosocial development that takes place over a person’s whole life (Cherry, 2015). Freud focuses on the need for food and sex and Erikson focuses on the role of the environment and culture.
Charlie is diagnosed with a mental illness called PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder). Freud believes this repression emerges later in life at one point or another. One writing to note in Freud’s The Psychopathology of Everyday Life, he says, ““As the indifferent memories owe their preservation not to their own content but to an associative relation between their content and another which is repressed, they have some claim to be called “screen memories’” (34). This is to pay attention and understand that his memories make him why he is
On the Contrary, Erickson (…………….) believed that there were eight stages of human development, he emphasised his development in terms of social and emotional development with each stage associated with social conflict or crisis while Vogotsky (………………) explain the theory of human development using the sociocultural theory. Vygotsky argued that children build their knowledge through social and cultural experiences. One of major criticism of Piaget theory of cognitive development is the use of strict stage time scale for each stage of development. Many researchers in their own opinion agreed that many children abilities overlap.
It also delves into how different contexts of situations and environments effect how a person shapes their identity. It also explores how these discourses create perceptions of gender to others as well as to themselves. 3. Drazenovich, G 2012, ‘A Foucauldian Analysis of Homosexuality’, Educational Philosophy and Theory, Vol. 44, no.
Erik Erikson was a stage theorist that emphasized on psychosocial development. His theory is the expansion of the Freud’s psychosexual theory. Erikson claimed that the development of the personality is based on the eight stages of lifespan model of development which he proposed. The eight stages of the lifespan model of development consist of “Trust vs Mistrust”, “Autonomy vs Shame”, “Initiative vs Guilt”, “Industry vs Inferiority”, “Identity vs Role Confusion”, “Intimacy vs Isolation”, Generativity vs Stagnation” and “Ego Integrity vs Despair”. The first stage of our lifespan is “Trust vs Mistrust” stage.
Psychological Review, Apr 1991. Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Vol 98(2), 224-253. The result of the study proves how people of different cultures have strikingly different perceptions of the self and others. This highlights how culture influences the development of the child.
According to Freud and the psychodynamic perspective, depression is caused by unresolved conflicts between the conscious and unconscious mind. In order to achieve mental health and stability, one must resolve developmental conflicts, such as gaining trust, successful interpersonal relationships, etc. There are a multitude of psychodynamic theories as to why a person would develop depression. According to the article “Psychology of Depression - Psychodynamic Theories” by Rashmi Nemade and Natalie Staats Reiss, “Psychoanalysts historically believed that depression was caused by anger converted into self-hatred ("anger turned inward").” For example, if a child is living in a hostile environment, that child will feel alone, helpless, and angry.
Scambler’s perspective Scambler and Hopkins (1986), are the medical sociologists that have further developed the Goffman’s ideas of information management in their research of people with epilepsy (Cooke and Philipin, 2008). Based on Goffman’s (1968), stigma was known to signify an “ontological deficit” which was violating against the social norms of identity or being (Scambler, 2009). Scambler proposed stigma can be clearly understood by distinguished them into ‘felt’ and ‘enacted’ stigma (Scambler, 2009). Enacted stigma occurred when there was obvious discrimination against people in view of their socially unacceptability (Scambler, 2009). As for, felt stigma was the developed of feeling being shame which was associated with the
Child maltreatment is a crucial social problem which is related to a complex of various aspects of the functioning of society and its beneficial evolution. The growth of the level of attention devoted to the problems of upbringing resulted in the appearance of a number of important questions. The relations within a family, the condition sunder which a child grows and factors that influence the formation of his/her psyche are the major concerns related to the issue of child maltreatment and its investigation. A number of scientists seek to determine the impact it might has on the further life of a child and his/her socialization. Additionally, the reconsideration of the approach towards psychosis and numerous attempts to elucidate the main concepts
In 1923, Sigmund Freud proposed his theory that the make-up of an individual’s personality is largely governed by three fundamental components: the id, the ego, and the superego. Working through the unconscious and shaping behavior according to psychological fixations and conflicts or lack thereof, these elements evolve through five levels of psychosexual development (Freud, 1962). However, in spite of its compelling approach to the phenomenon, Freud’s structural theory of personality is riddled with limitations and as such, is subject to much criticism. The mind is layered into three states: the conscious, referring to the thoughts currently in our forefront; the preconscious, idle thoughts that can be easily accessed and brought to the conscious; and the unconscious, which houses the more instinctual drives that are repressed because it threatens the conscious’ equilibrium (Cloninger, 1996). Freud argues that the unconscious molds the personality as it accommodates the id, the ego, and superego (Freud, 1962).