Sigmund Freud was known as the father of modern psychology and the development of psychoanalysis. Freud develops a theory of the human mind and their behaviors. Sigmund Freud develops a psychodynamics theory, which consists of the personality and the Id, the ego, and the superego. Psychodynamics theory was a way of explaining how humans mind works and their desires. Also, the psychodynamic theories develop during childhood experience and shape personality.
Each stage in this theory contains what Erikson terms a “crisis”, this crisis consists of interactions with others and through that interaction certain attributes and virtues are developed. Erikson was interested in Freud’s concept of fixation, but he used different concepts and principles in introducing the stages of identity development. In contrast with Freud, Erikson emphasizes that the development of personality is not limited. Instead, it is continuous throughout the whole individual’s life (Ewan, 2003). As Fleming (2004)
Like Freud, Erikson assumes that a crisis occurs at each stage of development. For Erikson (1963), these crises are of a psychosocial nature because they involve psychological needs of the individual (i.e. psycho) conflicting with the needs of society (i.e. social). According to the theory, successful completion of each stage results in a healthy personality and the acquisition of basic virtues.
Robert Louis Stevenson makes use of Freud’s theories. In “The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde”, the dualistic issue dominating the novel, coincide with the Freudian concepts of instincts and today is known as a strong example of Freudian personality theory in fiction. Freud believed that the psyche is built of three structures which battle for dominance; the id, the ego and the superego. By using his theory we are able to understand the psychological aspects of the characters that are hidden in the novella. The id is the illogical part of the personality structure that consists of instincts and functions according to the pleasure principal.
3. Psychoanalysis: A Synoptic View 3.1 Freudian Psychoanalytical Theory of Personality Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory of personality argues that Human behavior is the result of the interactions among three component parts of the mind: the id, ego and superego. Conflicts among the parts of the minds shape behavior and personality. These conflicts are mostly unconscious. And Psychoanalytic Theory is a framework for understanding the impact of the unconscious on thoughts, feelings, and behavior.
Jung, Adler, and Horney all agreed with the fundamentals of Freud’s psychoanalysis theory. However, they had significant theoretical differences in the effects of human nature and the role it plays in the development of the adult personality over a lifetime. Psychoanalysis Theory Freud’s primary techniques included free association and dream analysis, in order to uncover repressed memories of
Those mechanisms are functions carried out by the ego. They are a strategic effort by the ego to deal with socially unacceptable impulses of the id. According to S. Freud’s definition, reaction formation is when an individual feels an unacceptable impulse, however only express the opposite. In the article the authors describe reaction formation exactly as Freud did. Overall, there has been plenty of studies to show whether this defense mechanism is still valid
Freud’s psychoanalytical background branches into the studies of the subconscious, creating a history for each individual’s interpretation of the uncanny. In this essay, Freud elicits the ambiguity that lies within the study of the uncanny and its close acquaintance, the unfamiliar. Ernst Jentsch, the earliest analyst of the uncanny, concluded that the uncanny, or unheimlich, is the fear of the unfamiliar
The Psychoanalytic Theory represents one of the most sweeping contributions to the field of personality. This theory proposes that our childhood experiences and unconscious desires influence our behavior (Talvitie, 2012). William Ford Gibson an American-Canadian writer once wrote, "When you want to know how things really work, study them when they 're coming apart.” The Psychoanalytic theory consists mainly of using methods to bring out unconscious material that needs work on. Understanding as well as establishing that there are all sorts of forces that affect one life which attribute in making us into the individuals that we are at present. Recognizing the division of personality in the,”ID”Ego”, and Super ego and that the unconscious is an important part of who we are and noting that anxiety plays a big function in how one reacts to the world at large and highlighting Freud’s theory on defense mechanism to help one cope with such anxieties.
Superego obeys the morality principle to ensure socially acceptable behaviours. Besides, superego consists of two components: ego ideal, motivating moral behaviours for rewards and conscience, hindering immoral behaviours to avoid negative consequences. Freud proposed that high ego strength maintains balance between id, superego and the reality develops healthy personality, whereas low ego strength results in imbalance, hence forming maladaptive personalities and anxiety. To mediate anxiety, ego equips defense mechanisms which unconsciously distort unacceptable