However, in Freud’s model, this consisted of the “tip of the iceberg” which barely resided above the water. Next, just below the surface, is the Preconscious, which contains all of the memories that an individual can retrieve and bring to the conscious. The final part of one’s mind is the Unconscious. Freud’s writings describe this as being a “cauldron” or “reservoir” of all the ideas, thoughts, and feelings that a person has, but does not necessarily know exists. This aspect resides far below the surface, and comparable to an
He claims that we only have 20% access to our conscious minds and 80% access to our unconscious minds Schacter et al. (2011). The thoughts and behaviours we project during adulthood is merely influenced by our past, therefore situations that have happened during our childhood influence later in life. This goes on to explain Freud’s psychosexual stages of development where by our personalities are shaped through specific stages of development such as the oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital stage. These stages
If an individual were to picture an iceberg he or she would state that the top of the iceberg is visible. The psychodynamic perspective would state that this would be the conscious part of the mind. This part of the mind is aware of things, hence why described as visible. The next part of the iceberg is just under water and that is called the preconscious state or what some people would call it dream state.
Freud’s Psychodynamic Theory suggests that the personality is controlled by the unconscious mental processes that are developed and determined in early childhood. Based on the theory, the personality is made up of three elements. The first one being the “id” which is guided by the pleasure principle and comprises of an individual’s unintentional and natural desires (especially sexual and aggressive ones) which the individual is born with. The second element is “ego” which is developed from the “id” when the individual is around the age of three. It is guided by the reality principle and is seen as the mediator between the “id” and the “superego” due to the fact that it does give in to the demands made from the “id”.
Carl Rogers was conceived in 1902. He was an American clinical psychologist, who was known for his advancement of new routines for therapy treatments. Carl Rogers got his PhD from Columbia University in 1931. At that point Rogers was already included in work with mistreated kids. He additionally taught at Ohio State University from 1941 to 45 and the colleges of Chicago from 1945 to 57 and Wisconsin college from 1957 to 61.
Rogers viewed the personality structure in terms of just one construct nonetheless the construct is thus called The Self (Weiten, 2010). According to Clifford T. Morgan (1979) Rogers reports that he did not start out intending to make the self a central idea in his theory, but had kept discovering that clients tended spontaneously to think in such terms. Rogers also points to a positive trend in development, a striving “to actualize, maintain, and enhance the experiencing organism” (Morgan, 1979). In the matter a person might think that his IQ level is advanced whereas the grading suggests otherwise.
The Various Perspectives of Personality There have been numerous studies of the factors that can affect a person’s personality. Typically, these studies always reflected on what role a child’s early life played in their adult personalities. The character of Howard Hughes from the movie The Aviator was a fitting example of the many effective factors (Scorsese, 2004). This paper’s purpose is to examine and describe theories such as the psychoanalysis perspective, physiological perspective, and biological perspective of personality traits. Psychoanalysis Perspective Erik Erikson was a student of Freud whose approach to psychoanalysis was called ego psychology (Larsen & Buss, 2008).
Psychoanalytic theory to explain this, Sigmund Freud divided the three levels of consciousness in the soul. Three stages are environmentally conscious, pre-conscious and environmentally aware unconscious. Each level of consciousness that have descriptions that differ from each other. To explain the stages of awareness, Sigmund Freud was making an analogy with the equation of a piece of iceberg great.
Throughout one’s life, it is expected that these archetypal expectations crash with other experiences. This can lead to an internal conflict through the inevitable defenses of the ego. Jung recognized that the ego must be released from these disturbances or 'complexes' as he asserted them in order for individuals to live a full and meaningful life, in which their energy can be put to a more productive use. Jung believed that the best way to bring the unconscious elements into consciousness is by building a trusting and understanding relationship between the client and psychologist. The quality of this relationship ensures the clients comfort so they can openly speak about their problems, providing the necessary support and security to assist the progress of their awareness and self-actualization transformation that will help them overcome what is limiting their psychological wholeness.
On the other hand, the introversion individual is administered by subjective components. For introversion person the world exists not only in itself, but rather likewise as it appears to him. Along this, Introversion implies a turning inwards of the charisma whereby a negative connection of subject to protest is communicated. Each one whose
Sigmund Freud’s psychodynamic perspective of personality was the first comprehensive theory of personality, explaining a wide variety of both normal and abnormal behaviors. According to Freud, unconscious drives influenced by sex and aggression, along with childhood sexuality, are the forces that influence our personality. Freud attracted many followers who modified his ideas to create new theories about personality. To explain the concept of conscious versus unconscious experience, Freud compared the mind to an iceberg. He said that only about one-tenth of our mind is conscious, and the rest of our mind is unconscious.
The study of personality focuses on two main areas: One is understanding individual differences within certain personality characteristics, such as sociability or irritability. The other is understanding how the various parts of a person come together
INTRODUCTION. A set of assumptions or rules on which the practice of an activity is based on is called a theory. It is also a fundamental or a basis used to account for a situation. There are several theories used in counseling practice.