Development Theory Erik Erikson postulated eight psychosocial stages, an innovation to the five stages development of Dr. Sigmund Freud. Each of the psychosocial stages is marked by a psychosocial crisis that needs to be resolved so that the individual can move on. In these stages especially during the initiative versus guilt stage, Erikson believed that children begin to have the ability to control themselves and now learn to have some influence over others. This stage is the play age of children. Thus, crisis unresolved during this stage will lead children to become compulsively moralistic or overly inhibited (Apruebo, 2008).
His theory is helpful for child development and adults too. The five Erikson’s stages of development are trust vs. mistrust, autonomy vs. shame and doubt, initiative vs. guilt, competency vs. inferiority and the last one is identity vs. role confusion. Freud and Erik’s theories have some similarities and differences in some stages of development. In the first stage of Freud’s theory he says oral stage is the weaning process where the child must become less independent upon caretakers. At the stage of 1st year Eric says it’s the stage of trust vs. mistrust.
Sigmund Freud believe that the unconscious “originates in early experience” and that personality is “strongly influenced by unconscious determinants” (Cloninger et al., p. 23). Based on this model of personality development, it would appear as if Jeffrey Dahmer was led by his Id impulses, in spite of his Superego’s attempts to restrain him. Jung would likely agree with Dahmer’s father that Jeffrey was, in fact, introverted throughout most of his life and Freud would want to explore just what happened to Jeffrey in his early childhood that was so incredibly traumatic. Freud would probably conclude that it was Jeffrey’s childhood hernia operation that was at the root of Dahmer’s pathological development. Could it be that Jeffrey had felt abandoned, abused and tortured when he was left at the hospital, not understanding what would be happening or why?
I say this because some people are born to be the way they are but at the same time this could be changed by many aspects of a person’s life. Sigmund Freud- Psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud was in the center of the debate he was getting more knowledge about nurture but he was also giving some credibility to nature. Although Freud was at the center of the debate through nurturing he showed us how this theory truly does work with a person and how it makes us who we are. This was after years of research and study in psychoanalysis. Throughout the theory Freud mentions how there are parts of us psyche come together and make up our perception and our unconscious.
Furthermore, Erikson’s psychosocial theory, which perceives conflicts between the individual and society as necessary instigators of growth, states that conflicts that are attended to and resolved, allows one to move to a higher stage of development as we just saw. We just spoke about all the positive effects that one can have when successfully navigating Erikson’s stages, but what if one was not successful? negative effects can occur, leading to increased behavioral problems throughout life. These issues can lead children to develop identities into adulthood that are filled with feelings of guilt, inferiority, confusion, isolation, stagnation, and finally, despair. Erikson has influenced an array of developmental theorists, researchers, and psychotherapists and continues to be a major force in the psychological world (Feist, 2013, p. 239).
Therefore, these early deals with adolescence cerebral loss of motion were vital to the improvement of psychoanalytic hypothesis, especially the imperative thought that youth encounters assume an urgent part in the arrangement of grown-up consciences. While his theories were a long way from exact on numerous records, his thoughts, especially with respect to the presence of youth sexuality and the sub-conscience mind, stay essential in present day psychiatric thought and hypothesis. Indeed, even along these lines, the establishments for these thoughts have been everything overlooked. Moreover, from Dr. Sigmund Freud's initial work inside the field of neurology gives students of history, biographers, clinicians, and even researchers with a one of a kind look at the enormous observational ability and careful experimental exploration capacity that Freud had; aptitudes that would lead him to hypothesize a special, however vital, hypothesis of the internal workings of the human personality. While Dr. Freud's initial work in the field of neurology is not really perceived today, it speaks to
Jean Piaget, known for his interest in the Epistemology in children is seen as the pioneer of Developmental Psychology. Piaget 's Cognitive development theory led to a great deal of research work in the field of educational philosophy . But in the discipline of Psychology, every theory has been faced with a counter theory or an alternative. So is the case with Piaget 's theory. Lev Vygotsky, a soviet psychologist came up with the socio-cultural theory, which is another strong theory emphasizing child development and is seen as a major counter theory to Piaget 's work (Saul McLeod, 2004).
However, Scott Shane (2010) may refute Bronfenbrenner’s ideology as he believes that genes play the major role in deciding an individual’s personality and traits. One of his reasons was the experiment between twins where even though they were raised apart, eventually were drawn to the same occupations. Scott Shane does raise a valuable point, however, I still believe that genes play the role on shaping our physical traits but not mentally. You see, if a child is kinesthetically talented, obviously the child would be drawn to activities such as dancing or drawing for it is egotistical and craves attention. However, it also takes nurturing to sow the interest on the child and experiences to allow it to venture in finding its
Freud left this topic to his disciple Alfred Adler who saw power as a major component in different kinds of competition between siblings in the family. Remember the “Smothers Brothers” routine of “Mom always loved you best”? 1.7—The Power Complexes of Superiority and Inferiority Complexes According to Erik Erikson, the roots of inferiority may develop during this second toddler stage of activity if there is a lack of physical fitness or athletic de-ficiency but shame is more likely to develop in a competitive context of “the family constellation”. Alfred Adler saw power as a more dominant motivator than love arising among the “sibling rivalry” that develops when the first born child is “dethroned” from central stage as the only child by the birth of a second child. The baby needs more attention than the 2-4 year old first born and is loved just for being the newborn baby.
Parents and child’s response in the stages of psychosexual development theory According to Freud that all Children are born with powerful sexual urges. In learning to control these urges they learn right from wrong and acquire socialization skills. Freud believed that most people would successfully meet the challenge of each stage and move to the next. He also believed that some people did not successfully meet the challenges of a stage and became fixated or obsessed with that stage and thus their development was hindered. Here I’m going to highlight the child’s reaction with their parents in each stage of psychosexual theory.