The Psychodynamic Approach To Psychology

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When comparing and contrasting the psychodynamic and behaviourist approach to psychology similarities can be noted in early learning experiences and how this effects adult personalities. The differences can be seen in their views on mental process and in testing each theory. “The psychodynamic perspective searches for the causes of behaviour within the inner workings of our personality emphasizing the role of unconscious process”. (Passer, 2009 p11) Whereas, “The Behaviourist perspective focuses on the role of the external environment in governing our actions” (Passer, 2009, p13) Sigmund Freud developed the extremely influential and controversial theory of psychoanalysis. Despite the controversy, he had a huge impact on the field of psychology…show more content…
This involved allowing the patient sit and talk, the aim being that they eventually say what the issue is. He proposed that people use psychological techniques called defence mechanisms to help us cope with certain situations. For example, the ego will defend itself against anxiety using defence mechanisms to keep unacceptable thoughts and anxious feelings out of consciousness. (Eysenck, 1998). Freud’s psychosexual theory developed out of his belief that problems people had in later life resulted from early childhood experiences such as the relationship with their parents. There are five stages to the theory. Freud maintained that, if there is a bad experience at one of the stages it could lead to fixation for example if the child is not properly toilet trained. Fixation is essentially when the child will stay in that stage into adulthood, they are unable to develop passed this stage. According to Freud a person still in this stage in adulthood would be characteristically anal for instance very controlling or organised. The first stage is the oral stage, here the child associates the mouth with satisfaction. During the anal stage, the…show more content…
The Id is based on a want or pleasure principle, it is mainly unconscious. The ego tries to realistically satisfy the wants of the id and the superego. The ego develops during the first two years of life. ‘Conflicts between the id and the superego are especially frequent because the id’s demands for immediate gratification are often inconsistent with the moral standards of the superego.’ (Eysenck, 1998, p433). The superego is the part of the personality that deals with right and wrong. ‘These conflicts, and the unreasonable demand if the id and the superego, create the unpleasant emotional state of anxiety’ (Eysenck, 1998,
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