According to the psychoanalytic concept of the relationship of the child with the mother based on the fact that the mother provides the satisfaction of the child 's primary needs (Zazo, 1980). Psychoanalysts have this ratio defined as the ratio of emotional dependence. John Bowlby, reviewed nature of the relationship and defines it as attachment. The path of emotional dependence to affective attachment is actually a story of how and why John Bowlby, a psychoanalyst, became the founder of the theory attachment. Confidence that the circumstances in which we grow, we live and work, significantly associated with the way we think and create, according to the emergence of attachment theory is located in the context of biographical data about its founder.
Ruddick (1989) describes mothering as a social discipline involving unconditional attachment and attentiveness as well as certain reflections, judgments and emotions that require thinking. Mothering involves transformation, adaptation and sacrifice while continually struggling with autonomy, boundaries and sense of self (Ruddick 1994). Subsequently the prevailing media images of women often support adherence to patriarchal notions of femininity (Lowe 2003). Pivotal to how fathers negotiate this gap are the meanings that individuals attach to particular roles. These meanings derived from attached roles help to form identities (Henley and Pasley 2005), which in turn have the ability to direct behavior (Reicher 1984) particularly in those contexts where the identity is salient—in this case the family context.
In her work Justice and Care: Essential Readings in Feminist Ethics, Carol Gilligan discusses her own theory regarding moral development and the role different parenting models play in it. According to Gilligan, the gender binary in our parenting styles has lead to two very distinctive models of decision-making; the ethics (morality) of care and the ethics (morality) of justice. The ethics of care stresses the wants, needs, and interests of particular people. The ethics of justice stresses justice, fairness, and rights (Tong, 2009, Pg. 154).
The ego mediates between the id and the superego, and it causes the delays in pleasure, drives, and impulses of the id until the situation (reality) changes or is a socially acceptable. As noted by Fraud (1923), “the ego is an organization or substructure if the mental apparatus defined by its functions in The Ego and the Id” (Goldstein, 1995, p. 53). In addition, these functions are adopted by resistant clients as a defense mechanisms to protect themselves from anxiety or fear-inducing situations (Goldstein, 1995, p. 65). (I need to connect this with the client I am assessing). In this paper, I will assess a current Kinship foster mother on my caseload.
This chapter analyses the polar opposition between those who consider maternal love as an innate instinct that all females share, and those who regard it as a cultural construct. The first part of the chapter analyses the evolution of the concept of maternal love from the eighteenth century to the present, to later consider its representation in different areas, such as psychoanalysis, and popular culture. The main aim of the chapter is to determine the ways in which the definition of what constitutes ‘natural’ mothering patterns has become static in our culture, and identify the distinctive characteristics of both good and bad mothers. This will be done by focusing on the growing prominence given to the figure of the mother in psychoanalysis, and the representation of ‘bad mothers’ in myths, fairy tales, media discourse and literature. 1.1 The Evolution of the Concept of Motherhood The concept of mothering has a specific connotation in contemporary Western culture.
The forces of pronatalism are significant to women as it is the philosophy responsible for the persistent idea that a woman’s destiny and ultimate fulfilment is entrenched in childbearing and motherhood. Furthermore, pronatalism focuses on the advantages of having children while minimizing the disadvantages (Veevers, 1980). It creates the mother hood mandate the idea that regardless of whatever she chooses to do in life, a woman’s role must involve maternity (Russo,1976). Pronatalism comes at women from every angle, from the religious command to mother, to psychological theories which define maternity as a requirement for healthy female psychological development (Daniluk, 1999). Similarly it is at work in the media,
Freud later on in his career recognised the importance of the mother in the development of an infant. He believed that this relationship was unique and would provide the template for the infant’s future loving relationships (Green and Piel 2010). Freud stated that an infant forms an attachment bond with a person, who is usually the mother, or an object, who feeds and provides oral satisfaction as a result (Berryman et al 1997). Bowlby agreed that infants attach to one main caregiver and that this is usually the mother. He called this monotropy.
The present study focuses on the changing phase of motherhood in Salman Rushdie’s novel Shame. The notion of motherhood has conventionally discharged a herculean and extensive connotative function which transcends the pragmatic aspects of the role of women. The heritage that the women pass on generation after generation is that of dependence and yet the tenacity with which the dependent vine clings and survives is the triumph of womanhood. One must learn to interpret a new the experience the mothers have passed on to the child, to see them in terms of struggle, often unconscious, to find and maintain some peace, beauty and respect for themselves as women. She is given high respect and honour in society and myth, legend, religion and tradition.
First of all, the idea of the maternal figure will be dealt with. Julia Kristeva is a psychoanalyst and feminist writer who talks about what she calls the “semiotic” and the “symbolic”; for her, all signification is made up of these two elements. On the one hand, the semiotic element can be associated with Lacan’s pre-mirror stage, understanding the “mirror-stage” as the moment when the child starts to “see himself, to find himself” in the mirror. So according to Kristeva, the semiotic element comes before this moment, it is associated with the maternal body which is, according to professor Kelly Oliver “the first source of rhythms, tones and movements for every human
The word ‘need’ here emphasizes the fact that social workers must know these theories so as to be able to be actively involved in the practice of clinical social work. These theories include such as; a. Developmental theories; Piagets theory of development, Eric Ericksons psychosocial theories and so on. These theories help direct social worker practitioners to comprehend why someone may be doing something at a particular stage in life. For example, why male babies are jealous of their fathers and want their mother’s attention all to themselves. b.