The Crucible by Arthur Miller is an incredibly complex play depicting the fictional events of the Salem Witch Trials. If one is to begin to dissect the contents of said play, you must look at it from a psychological point of view. Particularly, a view of Freudian psychology might provide insight as to why some characters made certain decisions and carried out the actions they did. Using a Freudian psychological lens to examine The Crucible, readers can take a closer look at the actions of John Proctor and Abigail Williams and form hypotheses as to their deeper motives. Before diving into a psychological analysis, Freudian methods must be explained.
The cause of voyeuristic disorder depends on different theoretical perspectives: Freud initially discovered that voyeurism was a perversion - a regression to an earlier level of development and as a formation to avoid more threatening impulses for entering consciousness. He later claimed that the object of desire is a substitution for the mother, which in turn reenacts the struggles over separation and castration. Stoller (1991), a psychodynamic clinician reported that voyeurism is a hostile act of revenge for being humiliated. Social Learning Theorists contended that deviant sexual behavior was learned via observation and modeling. To support this notion, they stated that many voyeurs have experienced childhood sexual abuse.
I am not sure whether this client had consulted a mental health professionals or not. The analysis of personality disorders may be among the most contentious and challenging. Studies shown that one of the disputes surrounding personality disorders might be an unavailability of an obvious criteria for diagnosis. Due to this, psychologists might need to take more time in understanding the client, and his or her signs and symptoms, before reaching to a final diagnosis of personality disorder. With a vigilant method and belief on the DSM, psychologists might have more information to make a precise diagnosis of personality disorders.
The articles The Myth of Mental Illness and Road Rage: Recognizing a Psychological Disorder addressed the issue of mental illness in two completely different contexts. Both authors agreed that societal context plays a large role in classifying what is “mental illness”. In The Myth of Mental Illness, Thomas S. Szasz was critical and sceptical of the definition of mental illness. Mental illness was defined as a deviation in behaviour from psychological, ethical or legal norms. He then proceeded to ask the reader, “Who defines the norms and hence the deviation?” He claimed that it is the society that decides what is considered as the norm, implying the significance of society in the classification of mental illness.
Freud argues that the unconscious molds the personality as it accommodates the id, the ego, and superego (Freud, 1962). Essentially, the id is primitive and is widely believed to already exist at the time of birth. It acts on the pleasure principle, which thrives on hedonism and abstains from pain. However, the id is detached from reality so it can only obtain gratification indirectly such as through reflex actions and mental images (Morris & Maisto, 2013). To really satisfy our instincts, the ego comes into action.
The psychodynamic and behaviourist model are two opposing perspectives in psychology, both serve to understand the processes that govern behaviour as to resolve mental disease in very distinct ways. Firstly, central to the psychodynamic model; biological drives are the prerequisite from which all behaviour stems. Freud highlights that the unconscious is not readily accessible to the self, to this end it undermines the concept of free-will. Raising many questions, it proposes that if one’s individuality is determined by the conflict within the tripartite of mind throughout the psychosexual stages of infancy; to what extent is free-will available? This issue also arises within the behaviourist model.
According to the Freudian model of the psyche, psychoanalysis is a systematic structure of theories concerning the relation of the conscious mind and the unconscious mind by examining psychological process such as impulses, anxieties and internal conflicts. This model consists of three subcategories; the id, the ego, and the super-ego, all of which are evident in Arthur Miller’s play, The Crucible. The id focuses on a person’s desires without any correlation to the conscience, much like that of Abigail William’s lust for John Proctor. The ego identifies the part of a person’s personality responsible for dealing with reality, such as John coming to the realization that he must remain an upright and honest man. The super-ego represents a repository of socially
Psychoanalysis was first introduced by Sigmund Freud and is now known as classical psychoanalysis. The theory, as defined by Sigmund Freud, is the dynamic between underlying forces that determine behavior and personality. He stressed the importance of human sexuality, childhood experiences, and the unconscious processes. However, his theory was seen as misogynistic and narrow focused. Consequently, classical psychoanalysis was criticized and rejected by many scholars.
Freud suggested that the superego acts to perfect and civilize our behaviour and it suppress all unacceptable urges of the id while struggles to make the ego act upon idealistic standards, rather that upon realistic principles. The superego is present in the conscious, preconscious and unconscious. As far as toilet training is concerned, Freud had developed a theory of 'Psychosexual Development '. He developed and advanced this theory focussing on the effects of the sexual pleasure drive on a person’s emerging personality. According to this theory, parts of our personality develop as we move through a series of psychological stages.
Introduction Sigmund Freud is the great theorist of the mysteries of the human mind and a founder of the psychoanalysis theory which was formed in the 1800s, the theory is well known for accessing self-identity and the self in different ways in order to discover their different meaning, (Elliott, 2015). Buss (2008) states that Sigmund’s theory of Psychoanalysis offers a unique controversial insight into how the human mind works in a way that, this theory provided a new approach to psychotherapy, thus it means that it provided a new treatment for psychological problems that even highly qualified doctors couldn’t even cure. (Buss, 2008) According to Cloninger (2013), Erik Erikson on the other hand is the founder of the psychoanalytic-social Perspective which is mostly referred to as psychosocial development theory, Erikson became interested in child development when he met Anna Freud and he trained in psychoanalysis and with his Montessori diploma, he become one of the most influential psychologist of the 20th century. His theory describes eight stages of development that occurs in sequence throughout life and unlike Sigmund Freud’s theory, Erickson’s theory is more comprehensive because it encompasses cultural phenomena and mostly applied to therapy with Children and adolescence. (Cloninger, 2013) This essay explores Freud theory of Psychoanalysis and Erikson Psychosocial theory, analyzing, comparing and contrasting the two theories looking at the basic tenets and assumptions