Sigmund Freud: The Second Wave Of Psychoanalysis

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Psychoanalysis was first introduced by Sigmund Freud and is now known as classical psychoanalysis. The theory, as defined by Sigmund Freud, is the dynamic between underlying forces that determine behavior and personality. He stressed the importance of human sexuality, childhood experiences, and the unconscious processes. However, his theory was seen as misogynistic and narrow focused. Consequently, classical psychoanalysis was criticized and rejected by many scholars. Nonetheless, it had a significant impact on new theories that were later developed. In the mid to late 1900’s, a second wave of psychoanalytic theories were introduced. These new theories branched from Freud’s original idea that an individual’s behavior and personality are largely shaped by underlying unconscious forces, however, the second wave was modified to be more sophisticated and dynamic. The wide majority of Freud’s followers had no problem accepting the idea that conflicts during infancy affect the experiences of an adult, thus, affecting their future personality features. However, the second wave of psychoanalysis emphasizes interpersonal relationships rather than sexual feelings, accepts the study of the conscious mind, and contains a wider variety of explanations. Moreover, the new wave provided the means to advance and expand the psychoanalytic knowledge in the fields of social sciences, history, and humanities. For example, new wave psychoanalysts emphasized the necessity of modifying social
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