Parents can approach kids with toilet training with patience and in a more positive way. If they didn’t overcome this stage then they won’t develop a sense of accomplishment and independence. Phallic Stage (3 - 6 yrs) In this stage the children main focus is in the genitals and masturbation. Children become aware of the sex differences and due to this identification they face mixed emotion. In this stage they have some misunderstanding regarding their parents.
INTRODUCTION Pyschologists have tried to explain the phenomenon that is personality in human beings. This resulted in theories that attempt to explain how personality develops and how we become who we are. This essay will focus on the Freudian theory (psychoanalytic theory) and the Jungian theory (neopsychoanalytic theory) and will compare and contrast the two personality theories as well as highlight the major theoretical similarities and differences using examples DESCRIPTION OF THE THEORIES The psychoanalytic Theory Although did not come up with the idea of the conscious and the unconscious mind, he was the one responsible for making the idea quite popular. He divided consciousness into three categories first the conscious mind which
The child becomes aware of anatomical sex differences which sets in motion the conflict between attractions to others and Freud here called Oedipus complex in boys and electra complex in girls. Latency state ( 5 or 6 to puberty) Much of the child's energies are channeled into developing new skills and acquiring new knowledge and play becomes largely confined to other children of the same gender. Genital stage (Puberty to Adult) This is the last stage of Freud's psychosexual theory of personality development and begins in puberty. It is a time of adolescent sexual experimentation, the successful resolution of which is settling down in a loving one-to-one relationship with another person in our 20's. Sexual instinct is directed to heterosexual pleasure, rather than self pleasure like during the phallic stage.
There are however, some recognizable differences between the two approaches. The starting point in Lacanian psychoanalysis is Freud’s theory on the psyche.
Unsatisfied id in the childhood can be led to personality problems in the adult life. According to Freud, the id belongs to the hidden unconscious of the iceberg structure. The ego follows the reality principle and deals with the reality in the outer world to satisfy the id’s needs and reduce the tension. The ego develops between age 1 -2 in an infant. The ego can enter the conscious, the preconscious and the unconscious and when the id seeks for socially unacceptable needs, the ego hides that desires in the unconscious.
Jung, Adler, and Horney all agreed with the fundamentals of Freud’s psychoanalysis theory. However, they had significant theoretical differences in the effects of human nature and the role it plays in the development of the adult personality over a lifetime. Psychoanalysis Theory Freud’s primary techniques included free association and dream analysis, in order to uncover repressed memories of
Id, ego, and super ego are the three sections of the psychic device characterized in Sigmund Freud's structural model of the mind; they are the three hypothetical builds regarding whose movement and association our mental life is portrayed. As indicated by this model of the mind, the id is the situated of ungraceful instinctual patterns; the super ego plays the discriminating and admonishing part; and the conscience is the composed, sensible part that intervenes between the cravings of the id and the super-ego. The super ego can prevent one from doing certain things that one's id may need to do. Therefore, Id, Ego and super ego has its own distinctive differences
Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Developmental Theory Erik Erikson (1950, 1963) proposed a psychoanalytic theory of psychosocial development comprising eight stages from infancy to adulthood. During each stage, the person experiences a psychosocial crisis which could have a positive or negative outcome for personality development. Erikson 's ideas were greatly influenced by Freud, going along with Freud’s (1923) theory regarding the structure and topography of personality. However, whereas Freud was an id psychologist, Erikson was an ego psychologist. He emphasized the role of culture and society and the conflicts that can take place within the ego itself, whereas Freud emphasized the conflict between the id and the superego.
Sigmund Freud is seen as the father of psychology. He was also the one who came up with the theory about defense mechanisms. He means that people develops defense mechanisms against anxiety. It is a way to distort reality and exclude feelings from awareness, just not to feel anxious. Those mechanisms are functions carried out by the ego.
The manner, in which weaning and toilet training happens, i.e. either forcefully/ softly, is thought to affect adult personality. Next to develop is the phallic stage, (3 to 5 yrs), when the pleasure around on the sexual organs. These times, it is thought that children become curious about the origin of babies. During the phallic stage, children feel unconscious sexual desire for the opposite-sex parent.