A way to demonstrates Freud’s perspective is using the iceberg analogy, there are three parts that make up the iceberg, these parts include the id, ego , and superego. The id is basically the drive that doesn’t think the situation through, it is known as the pleasure principle, the ego is the drive that puts the situation into reality, it’s known as the reality principle, the superego is literally the brain of all three. Ironically, the superego is what judges what is right and wrong, also called conscience, an example would be me wanting to eat ice cream. My id yells for me to eat the ice cream right now, while my ego says that I can just eat a small bowl
He also believed that people possess secondary traits (those that are more specific to certain situations and control far less behavior). Allport’s research helped to lay the foundation for modern research on personality traits. His focus on the uniqueness of each personality made it difficult to draw conclusions about the structure of personality in general (Bernstein,
Murfin compares Freud’s levels of the mind, based around structure or purpose, to an iceberg. It consists of three parts - the id, the ego and the superego. “The id, the part of the iceberg completely submerged in the unconscious, is driven by one’s libido and consists of the inherited components of one’s personality, including one’s sexual instinct. The second part of the iceberg, the ego, found in both the unconscious and conscious mind, can gain purpose from fulfilling the desires of the id. However, the ego–because it wavers between the unconscious and conscious only fulfills the desires of the id in ways that are socially acceptable.
It is that part of the id which has been modified by the influence of the external world (Freud, S. 1923). The ego is developed in order to mediate between the unrealistic demands of the id and the reality of the world we live in. It is the main component of personality that is involved in decision making. Whereas the id operates on the principle of pleasure, the ego works by reason. According to Freud, the ego works on the reality principle, figuring out realistic ways of achieving what the subconscious desires.
J. Eysenck, who felt that in order to enhance our understanding of problem solving behavior, there is a need to assume acientific research methods and entirely reassess psychoanalytic theory. Eysenck put much effort in classifying human behavior rather than attempting to understand the individual. He attempted to classify human behavior using the concepts of trait and type (p.371). Eysenck 1967 (cited in Singh, 2005, p.126) “identifies the major component of personality features. For instance, people who are considered as an extrovert according to Eysenck’s extroverted type are believed to have charecteristics such as sociability, liveliness, and excitability,” according to Boeree (2006), Eysenck’s hypothesis points to the fact that extroversion/ introversion is the matter of inhibition and excitation in the brain itself.
Beck (2012), explain what separates psychodynamic theory from other theories and is unique and exclusive, is the concept of unconscious. Psychodynamic theories emphasize the importance of our unconscious mental life. In psychodynamic theory, emotions are data about the inner mental life, and it is in that perspective as the informants from the unconscious that emotions must be understood. Psychodynamics is a collective term for all the models and descriptions of the psyche that are primarily preoccupied with unconscious processes. Psychodynamic theory includes theoretical sub-disciplines about personality, development, groups, including social psychology, leadership, role, organization, and about phenomena such as resistance and relations.
The father of psychoanalysis, a great Neurologist, Sigmund Freud, categorized our minds into 3 major parts: The Id, The ego and the superego. The ego is our conscious self, the us that we are aware of. The superego is a consciousness that keeps our Id suppressed. Our Id, which is suppressed, consists of our primal instincts, impulses, desires, unchecked urges, thoughts and ideas and emotions. This can be considered as our nature, our true self.
People are able to relate to Erikson's stage of development because it can be applicable to people at different point of their life. However, Erikson's 7 stage of development still had many logical flaws, as well. Sigmund Freud was the founder of psychoanalysis, which is the study of mental disorder.
Freud suggested that the superego acts to perfect and civilize our behaviour and it suppress all unacceptable urges of the id while struggles to make the ego act upon idealistic standards, rather that upon realistic principles. The superego is present in the conscious, preconscious and unconscious. As far as toilet training is concerned, Freud had developed a theory of 'Psychosexual Development '. He developed and advanced this theory focussing on the effects of the sexual pleasure drive on a person’s emerging personality.
In this article, the author comparing the counseling process and its outcome metaphorically to Freud 's psychosexual stage idea of personality progress. He focuses on similarities between the oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital stages of both Freud 's idea and the counseling route, leading to fresh awareness into the nature of the counseling relationship. To define term of metaphora :"metaphors intend to suggest, and thus to reveal, certain images which enable us to see a likeness between initially different events"(Garcia, John L,2001). That is to explain this comparison is to prove how metaphors can be used to make uncertain experiences; and to offer an idea for refreshing the clinical perspective on the nature of the counseling relationship. Sigmund Freud, was one of the most influential people of the twentieth century ,he was the founding father of psychoanalysis, a method for treating mental illness and also a theory which explains human behavior.
The definition of morality according to oxford dictionaries, is principles concerning the distinction between right and wrong and good and bad behaviour. It is the difference of intentions, decisions and actions between those that a considered as moral and immoral behaviour. The definition of debate is a formal discussion/ argument on a specific subject in which opposing groups put their argument forward and most of the time it ends in a vote. The assumptions of the psychodynamic approach are that your instincts and impulses are present at birth and the causes of behaviour are your feelings, emotions and childhood experiences.