It relies on the morality principle acting as a censor and conscience by telling what is right and wrong. (Thompson & Meggit, 2004) Freud proposed a “stage theory”. He believed that an individual must pass through one stage to reach the next stage of development and thought that each stage could have a negative outcome and an individual could become stuck or fixated in a stage (O 'Brien, 2013). Freud’s five stages of psychosexual development are: • Oral (0-2 years) • Anal (2-3 years) • Phallic (3-6 years) • Latent (6-11 years) • Genital (11+ years) He also studied a number of defence mechanisms. “Defence mechanisms are mental processes which are automatically triggered when anxiety occurs”
Although these schools differ, most of them emphasize the influence of unconscious elements on the conscious. Under the broad umbrella of psychoanalysis there are at least 22 theoretical orientations regarding human mental development. Freudian psychoanalysis refers to a specific type of treatment in which the patient verbally expresses his or her thoughts through free associations, fantasies, and dreams, from which the analyst infers the unconscious conflicts causing the patient's symptoms and character problems, and interprets them for the patient Psychoanalysis has received criticism from a wide variety of sources. It is regarded by some critics as a pseudoscience. Nonetheless, it remains a strong influence within the realm of psychiatry, and more so in some quarters than
Psychodynamics and psychoanalysis looks at the ways in which the unconscious mind influences our behaviour. When it comes to Freud’s psychanalytical theory, he considered our personalities and behaviours to stem from three different structures: the id, the ego and the superego. The id is totally unconscious. It operates in a totally irrational way, seeking only pleasure. The ego is driven
These unconscious wishes, according to Freud, can find expression in dreams because dreams twist the unconscious material and make it appear different from itself and more acceptable to consciousness. They may also appear in other concealed shapes, like in language (sometimes called the Freudian slips), in creative art and in neurotic behavior. One of the unconscious desires Freud believed that all human beings supposedly suppress, is the childhood desire to displace the parent of the same sex and to take his or her place in the warmth of the parent of the opposite sex. This so-called “Oedipus Complex,” which all children experience as a rite of passage to adult gender identity, lies at the core of Freud's sexual theory. Freud divides the level of mental life of human psych into three “provinces,” id, ego,
They have conflicts about sexuality. Freud stated that sexuality was everything (Blundell, 2014). On the other hand, Jung exuded that sex can influence the one’s behaviors, however the one’s behaviors’ only reason cannot be explained with just sex. What is Psychoanalytic Perspective? Psychoanalytic perspective is all about unconscious mind (Mitchell & Black, 1995, p. xvi).
Cognitive Behavioral Theory (CBT) is a form of psychological treatment that helps different types of behavioral problems such depression, eating disorders, and severe mental illness. The Cognitive Behavioral Theory was pioneered by Aron Beck. Although he spent most of his career studying psychoanalysis, in the 1960s his research focused on distorted thoughts that led to problematic behaviors (“Beck”, 2017). He developed the Cognitive Behavioral Theory trying to help his depressed clients while working as a psychiatrist at the University of Pennsylvania. The Cognitive Behavioral Theory (CBT) approach consists on monitoring negative automatic thoughts (cognitive), recognizing the connection between cognition and behavior, examine the evidence for and against the distorted thoughts, and learn to identify and alter the dysfunctional beliefs (Craske, 2010).
And this accusation got more significant with the will of some Freudians combining the theory of repression with an acceptance of child sexual abuse. In addition, people who recovered old memories of childhood sexual abuse by their parents especially in the United States and Britain, caused those parents to be accused by the community with these actions, eventually leading to the destruction of families. Accused parents saw themselves as victims of “False Memory Syndrome” who rejected all those accusations and considered that the childhood memories were a type of sexual repression. This has caused Freud to confirm that the concept of repression really exists causing the critics to examine his theory
According to Freud, our personality develops from a conflict between two forces: our biological aggressive and pleasure-seeking drives versus our internal control over these drives. Our personality is the result of our efforts to balance these two competing forces. Freud suggested that we can understand this by imagining three interacting systems within our minds. He called them the id, ego, and superego. The unconscious id contains our most primitive drives or urges,
Reading these publications can help them understand the Freudian theory more. One of Freud’s utmost influential works is “Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality”, in which he outlines his theory of Psychosexual Development. Another book is “Jokes and their Relation to the Unconscious” or ‘Der Witz und seine Beziehung zum Unbewußten’, where Freud observed how jokes, most likely dreams, could be associated to the unconscious wishes, desires, or memories. This book is based on his theory of Personality- the id, ego, and superego- which, according to Freud superego allows the ego to engender and express humor. Another book is ‘Introduction to Psychoanalysis’ or ‘Vorlesungen zur Einführung in die Psychoanalyse’, which is one of the eminent works of Freud.
This approach has been customized by some theorists Psychoanalytic terms of concept and procedures and they have formed the theory that each approach more commonly known as neo-Freudians.Among psychologists who have followed the opinion of the theory to customize each one is Alfred Adler who formed the theory of Individual Psychology and Carl Jung who formed the theory analysis.Freud exaggerate the sexual impulses and stimulation has caused many controversies, one impression is a follower and disciple of Freud children have formed their own theories. Most of them receive natural motifs interests are not conscious, but they are putting more emphasis to relations with the public versus ego with ego only satisfactory relationship id's will. In general psychoanalytic approach that sees humans as individuals who have determined his future. The approach has laid the man was born together with animalistic instincts that is evil. His life has been determined from the beginning again by those instincts.