According to Kline (1972), too much or too little of oral stimulation might develop personality traits that involve mouth such as over eating, nail biting, smoking or drinking. The negative impact this creates on a person is that the person may be too gullible or naïve and too pessimistic to lead while depend on others (Gorer&Menninger, 1943). Anal Stage In anal stage, according to Gorer & Menninger (1943), the child gain pleasure by eliminating or retaining feces. This stage is experienced at the age of 18 months to three years. If the parent is too strict on toilet training the child may become obsessed with control, perfection and cleanliness.
While the validity of BPD is now generally accepted, the etiology of the disorder is still in process of being uncovered and better defined (Zanarini & Frankenburg, 1997). The first attempt belongs to three psychodynamic theories as for instance Kernberg (1975) suggested that excessively early aggression of the child has contributed to split his/her positive and negative images, which was caused by real frustrations. These made the pre-borderline child unable to understand and merge the positive/negative images to reach a more realistic and balanced view of him/her and others. Also, according to Adler and Buie (1979), the failure in early mothering has led the child to a failure in developing stable object constancy, as a result of mother’s inconsistency or insensitivity and non-empathy, which led them to develop an unstable view of them and the world, using stress as a coping mechanism. The last theory of the psychodynamic field (Mahler, 1972), refers to fear of abandonment as the central factor in borderline psychopathology.
The cause of voyeuristic disorder depends on different theoretical perspectives: Freud initially discovered that voyeurism was a perversion - a regression to an earlier level of development and as a formation to avoid more threatening impulses for entering consciousness. He later claimed that the object of desire is a substitution for the mother, which in turn reenacts the struggles over separation and castration. Stoller (1991), a psychodynamic clinician reported that voyeurism is a hostile act of revenge for being humiliated. Social Learning Theorists contended that deviant sexual behavior was learned via observation and modeling. To support this notion, they stated that many voyeurs have experienced childhood sexual abuse.
Moreover the Ego began to form in this stage. According to Freud this is the stage where weaning is the key experience in the infant's oral stage of psychosexual development. This experience helps in increasing the self-awareness and thus learns of delayed gratification, which leads to the formation of the capacities for independence (awareness of the limits of the self) and trust (behaviors leading to gratification). From the above paragraph it is clear that the role of parents in this stage is significant. Thwarting of the oral-stage — too much or too little gratification of desire — might lead to an oral-stage fixation, characterized by passivity, unwariness, immaturity, unrealistic optimism, which is manifested in a manipulative personality consequent to ego malformation.
Oedipal Complex, also known as Oedipus complex is a term used in psychology which was introduced by Sigmund Freud in his theory Psychosexual stages of development, in the book Interpretations of Dream. It describes the feeling of sexual involvement of a child towards the opposite sex parent and a feeling of jealousy or rivalry towards the parent of the same sex. For instance, a boy feels that he is in competition with his father for the possession of her mother. Similarly, when a girl has feelings of desire towards her father ad she thinks that she is competing with her mother for Father’s affection. The Oedipus complex arises in the childhood i.e.
It will look at how Freud 's theories have inspired the development of attachment theories. This essay will also examine how psychodynamic theories of the unconscious have evolved into contemporary psychology. Finally, it will consider how theorists who have disagreed with psychodynamic theories have developed their own new fields of psychology, and how they are applied today. Whether people support or reject psychodynamic theories, there is no doubt those theories have had a profound effect on contemporary psychology. One of the primary beliefs of Freud 's theory is that our childhood experience can have an impact on our behaviour and thoughts as an adult.
Before his revolutionary principles the treatment of mentally sick patients were outright scary and the thought of unconscious thoughts and wishes was ridiculous. Freud introduced a new kind of treatment for mentally sick patients, namely psychoanalysis or “the talking cure”. When studying his patients, Freud became convinced that emotional experiences in early childhood could create impulses that became trapped in the unconscious and were the reasons for mental disorders. He was treating his patients by trying to make them aware of these memories by, for example, letting them talk completely freely about whatever they wanted, something he called free association. This form of treatment has been one of the cornerstones for the development of psychotherapy and has improved the lives of many.
i.) For Freud, sexuality is a term that is much broader than that of intercourse between male and female. He argues that sexuality takes many forms and shapes and that these forms are dependent on the sexual development during the infant years of life. Freud explains that sexuality is not simply the connection between genitals and pleasure but rather that it determines our behaviours and personalities due to infant sexuality which occurs between birth and the age of 6 and is described by Freud as the psychosexual stages of development. Freud therefore claims that sexuality is a concept which develops from birth and not at puberty as it is widely been claimed and for many years has been accepted.
Adolescents who perceived their parents as accepting of premarital adolescent sexual activity were more likely to be sexually experienced. Parents who show weak values with regards to sexual risk-taking technically sets a bad example to their children and results to adolescents’ higher intention to engage in sex and may experience unprotected sex and become pregnant (Douglas Kirby & Gina Lepore, 2007). Parents may do a variety of ways to convey permissive attitudes about premarital sex or teen sex by voicing out negative attitudes about pre-marital sex, or having been a teen parent and its other
Jean Piaget’s cognitive theory to development outlines that, similarly to that of physical development and the abilities of the child, their way of knowing and perceiving the world also grows and changes. Researchers outlined that a child’s temperament and reactions reflect the efforts that parents show towards their development rather than their parenting style. They indicated that the most important ingredient in a child’s development and parenting is the degree of warmth shown by parents versus rejection. It was analyzed that parental rejection has a negative effect on children from all walks of life. It is said that when the child encounters rejection (little or no attention) from parents they express or become ‘hostile, aggressive children’ and have it difficult to find or keep a meaningful relationship (Khalegue et al 2007).