Erikson’s second stage of development is called “Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt”, where Freud describes it as the “Anal Stage”. Erikson’s second stage occurs between the ages of one to three and compares it with how well a caregiver permits a child to exercise her or his will, and in providing the freedom in order for the child to make choices regarding his or her own life (Boeree, 2006). In stage two, Erikson demonstrated how a child is challenging the boundaries, in order for them to see the effect that it can have on their life (Boeree, 2006). This is the time where the parents or caregivers have to walk a tightrope when it comes to granting the child with enough space in order for them to make decisions and to investigate on their own. If the parents are over protective and denies the child their own will, doubt and shame may develop causing nervousness and problems when it comes to initiating actions (Boeree, 2006). Erikson maintains that attaining a positive balance throughout this stage, the child reaches "autonomy" in conjunction with the "basic virtue and strength" of possessing “self-control and willpower " (Boeree, 2006).When the opposite occurs (negative end of the scale) compulsion can be viewed as the maladaptation, and if the scale tips to the extreme positive scale it would be Impulsivity (Boeree, 2006).
Sigmund Freud was the father of the psychodynamic approach, he looked at the human mind greatly than any one before him. His contributions to psychology are vast. Key assumptions of this approach includes that events in individual's childhood can have a impact on their
It is said that events and/or happenings affect a person psychologically. This, in turn, can make said person act a certain way so that they can achieve a short sense of fulfillment. In the twentieth century, Sigmund Freud had an incredibly important idea about the “human psyche” (personality). He concluded that it is made up of more than one aspect and that the psyche was structured into three distinct parts – and, although each develop in different life stages and contain unique features, they all contribute to an individual’s behavior. The three parts include: the ego, superego, and the id. The ego is the part within that is influenced by the outside world and allows us to make decisions. It relies on realistic strategy and reason to satisfy
The nature- nurture debate was a debate that was argued a while back. It is an argument till this day in trying to decide which theory in the right theory. The nature- nurture debate is basically a debate about how a human being turns out to be in their life and what determines that. The nature- nurture debate is how both influence a human beings performance. Some argue that people were born to be the way they are on the other hand the other theory is that people turn out the way they are depending on their surrounding and their lifestyle. Nature is when it is genetic and biological influences, Nurture is when it is social, economic and environmental influences. Underneath are five different opinions from 5 different people on the nature nurture debate and which side they agree with.
Psychoanalytic was first discovered by Sigmund Freud which is a close look at the unconscious drives that make people do certain things or act a certain way. Freud was always talking about the way the mind worked because he believed our minds are responsible for the things we do weather we are conscious or unconscious. There are three characteristics according to Freud that made up a persons personality which are: The Id, ego, and the super ego. The Id is the part of the unconscious that attempts pleasure, which people seem to act out when the Id is not lined up with the ego or super ego. Ego, for us humans to keep a real sense on earth in reality we need ego in order to maintain a balance between pain and pleasure,
Freud 's theories are very important today and can be seen in everyday life such as the Structure of Personality Theory and his theory on Defense Mechanisms which I will outline and discuss in the Essay. I will explore the three key element of the Structure of personality. I will also discuss defense mechanism with a focus on repression and how it effects people in a lie crisis.Freud was very influential in psychoanalytic theory and is commonly referred to as the father of psychoanalysis. The impact of Freud 's work in modern psychology, and in our entire culture, has been extremely significant. That is why I wanted to have a closer look at Freud 's Structure of Personality and Defense Mechanisms.
Sigmund Freud was the first who use the term psychoanalysis in 1896. From that point his theories blossomed. Freud did not invent the terms unconscious, conscious or conscience. However he was successful in making them popular. Freud attained this through his theory of psychological reality, id, ego, and superego. Freud also drove a strong movement that sex drive is the most important motivating force. “He went on to identify that at times in our lives we find different areas on our bodies pleasurable and today these are known as erogenous zones. These ideas mixed together to form Freud’s Psychosexual Stage Theory which is still taught in textbooks today”. This theory consisted of five different stages. The first is the oral stage, in it a newborns to eighteen month old infants find pleasure from the mouth, specifically, sucking. The second stage is the anal stage. It occurs at the age of eighteen months to three years. Freud believed that in this stage children receive pleasure from holding and letting go of their bowel movements. Third is the phallic stage. It starts at age three and end around age seven. In this stage children find pleasure through the ways of touching. Forth is the latent stage. It occurs in children ages seven to adolescence. It suggested that children at this age get their pleasure in order to learn and grow. Fifth and last is the genital stage which begins at adolescence involves finding pleasure in
A psychobiography is based on developmental psychology theories, where the theories are based on an individual’s “self” through the use of psychological theories and research. Psychology shares many of its domain with other branches of science, such as, anatomy, sociology, statistics, and even economy. Literature, which reveals human feelings, emotions and inner life, belongs to them as well. It is not uncommon for a writer to use psychological theories in creating one’s fictional characters.
In life of an individual there are several developmental changes or events which occur as continuity of span of life. Some of life developmental stages include infantile, adolescence, maturity, and adulthood. These phases have biological, social, psychological and physiognomic reasons to which an individual completed the course of life. Psychological analysis upon the developmental stages include the focus on characterization, demarcation and the social interaction of individual’s life (Baltes & Schaie, 2013).
In 1923, Sigmund Freud proposed his theory that the make-up of an individual’s personality is largely governed by three fundamental components: the id, the ego, and the superego. Working through the unconscious and shaping behavior according to psychological fixations and conflicts or lack thereof, these elements evolve through five levels of psychosexual development (Freud, 1962). However, in spite of its compelling approach to the phenomenon, Freud’s structural theory of personality is riddled with limitations and as such, is subject to much criticism.
A set of assumptions or rules on which the practice of an activity is based on is called a theory. It is also a fundamental or a basis used to account for a situation. There are several theories used in counseling practice. However, in this essay, I will only deal with the three prominent theories, which are, Psychoanalytic theory, Behavioral theory and Humanistic theory.