INTRODUCTION Psychoanalysis, a particular method of medical treatment of mental illness was developed by Sigmund Freud. He derived this method from his clinical observations as well as his theoretical speculations regarding poetic and artistic creation and religion. Psychoanalysis gradually became known as the science of unconscious mental processes, and the usefulness of its theories became valuable for the understanding of the metal behavior in health as well as diseases. As a physician who specialized in treating the mentally ill, Freud developed a comprehensive theory concerning the psychological structure and functioning of the human mind. Freud’s most fertile years were those between 1895 and 1900.
Freud also is well-known for his sexual and irrational interpretation of dreams, which demonstrates how prevalent the idea of irrationality was at that time (e.g. Kafka’s The Metamorphosis as well). Although elements of the Enlightenment are still prevalent to this day, the Modernist era was a result of a shift in beliefs, which Freud shows throughout his varying pieces of work, including On
“…one could say, with little exaggeration, that the persona is that which, in reality, one is not, but which oneself as well as others think one is.” (Jung, Memories, Dreams, Reflections 397 qtd in CW 8,p 436) Psychoanalysis as a new theoretical study in literature emerged in the twentieth century and has greatly influenced literary productions that are the resultant of the mind’s encounter with physical or social realities. Psychoanalysis had been an age-old approach, as early as fourth century B.C., used by Aristotle in his theory of poetry who postulates the definition of tragedy as the combination of the emotions of pity and terror to produce catharsis. One of the icons of Renaissance, Sir Philip Sidney highlighted the moral effects of
He made his own self famous with his theories and hypothesis. Also he was the only one to have them. Freud also developed therapeutic techniques. The central role of these techniques was in the analytic process. Freud’s theories on ID, ego and superego and also the “libido” like the science calls it, have made a massive boom.
PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORY The word psychodynamic means to a large group of theories that affects the It is a way that tells that personality of the mind exists in the conscious, subconscious and unconscious states like the unconscious wishes, feelings and thoughts. This theory is presented by Sigmund Freud in which he mentions that personality contains three components which are the id, the ego and the superego. These all work collaboratively in order to make complex human behaviours. Id is associated with the way of thinking or the natural ability and the crave for pleasure. Ego is associated with the intervene in the agreement among them with the need of the reality.
In this paper I have made a humble attempt to analyze the text in the light of the third force psychoanalytical theories propounded by Horney. Keywords- Alice Munro, Short Story, Psychoanalysis, Third Force, Horney. Introduction Literature and psychology when studied together can offer a wonderful analysis of the human mind. Both discuss human psyche though in different manner. Psychologists give theories after their observation and analysis, whereas the literary artists convey their understanding of life through artistic presentation.
Skepticism, once again, would bring forth new theories that would leave individuals to never ending ponder. Sigmund Freud, the father of Psychoanalysis, was a well-known psychiatrist and neurologist during his time who was known for his influential theory of the unconscious mind. He believed that we are “humans governed by powerful, independent unconscious forces” (Davis, 2018). In one of his writings entitled, Some Elementary Lessons in Psychoanalysis, he goes on to explain a case involving his patient being hypnotized and completing a task that was ordered to him during his unconscious state. The idea Freud is trying to pinpoint is that, “We commonly fabricate reasons for our choices or deeds – reasons that conceal, not reveal, the underlying causes of our decisions or activities.” (Sigmund Freud, The Unconscious and Myth of Reason) To counteract this idea, “Enlightenment philosophers saw reason as having an equalizing effect on humanity, because everyone's thoughts and behavior would be guided by reason.
Oedipal Oedipus? One of the greatest playwrights in Greek history was Sophocles with his renowned play Oedipus Rex, which has been the central topic of innumerous psychological debates. Sigmund Freud, also called the father of psychology and the founder of psychoanalysis constructed a theory called the Oedipus complex, eponymous of Sophocles’ Oedipus Rex. These aforementioned debates largely surround whether or not the play and theory are directly related. It is fair to state that the basis of Freud’s complex can be detected in the story.
The id is also the source of libido and sexual energy. These wants and desires can influence the reader subconsciously on the interpretation of the text. The ego is the second part of Freud’s theory that is applied in psychoanalytical criticism; it serves as the intermediary between the id and super ego and a mediator. This part make sure that there is a balance of both sections of the human psyche while analyzing a piece of work. Lastly the superego is the conscious part of us that makes decisions based on social clues.
The article is a detailed examination of Freud’s Psychodynamic Dream Theory. Despite of the controversies it causes, the theory has helped to explain dreams in a logical way, and it has been proven to have remarkable clinical use. Feud concludes that a dream has both its manifest content and latent content. Dreams can reveal the hidden desire of humans, and childhood experiences can have a notable impact on dreams as well. They are usually wish-fulfilling.