Psychoanalytic therapy is the still an effective therapy and intervention today as it is found by theories of Sigmund Freud. Sigmund Freud is one of the forefathers of psychology and the founder of psychoanalysis. Sigmund Freud laid the foundation for psychotherapy with human behaviour, the role of the conscious, unconscious, subconscious and other several major concepts. Psychotherapy is a treatment used by a professional to establish a relationship with a client with the objective of finding out the disturbed pattern of behaviour. Psychoanalytic therapy takes a look at the unconscious mind by using different techniques and looking at your childhood to define some of the behaviour that you’re behaving.
PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORY The word psychodynamic means to a large group of theories that affects the It is a way that tells that personality of the mind exists in the conscious, subconscious and unconscious states like the unconscious wishes, feelings and thoughts. This theory is presented by Sigmund Freud in which he mentions that personality contains three components which are the id, the ego and the superego. These all work collaboratively in order to make complex human behaviours. Id is associated with the way of thinking or the natural ability and the crave for pleasure. Ego is associated with the intervene in the agreement among them with the need of the reality.
Many theories of group counselling have borrowed ideas and approaches from psychoanalysis. The primary aim of the analytic process is reorganize the client’s personality and character structure. This aim is attained by making unconscious conflicts conscious and analysing them. Wolf (1963, 1975) developed group applications of fundamental psychoanalytic approaches such as working with transference, free association, dreams, and the historical factors of existing behaviour. The group leader relates understanding to the family-like relations that emerge among the members and between the members and the therapist.
A psychoanalytic therapist will encourage you to say whatever is going through your mind. This will help you become aware of hidden meanings or patterns in what you do or say that may be contributing to your problems. Uncovering and resolving these unconscious conflicts is the major gold of this therapy. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is a form of psychotherapy that examines how beliefs and thoughts are linked to behaviour and feelings. It teaches skills that retrain your behaviour and style of thinking to help you deal with stressful situations.
It will look at how Freud 's theories have inspired the development of attachment theories. This essay will also examine how psychodynamic theories of the unconscious have evolved into contemporary psychology. Finally, it will consider how theorists who have disagreed with psychodynamic theories have developed their own new fields of psychology, and how they are applied today. Whether people support or reject psychodynamic theories, there is no doubt those theories have had a profound effect on contemporary psychology. One of the primary beliefs of Freud 's theory is that our childhood experience can have an impact on our behaviour and thoughts as an adult.
Word association discloses complexes - collections of often repressed and related unconscious associations, impulses or ideas that cause a habitual pattern of behaviour or thought of a person (Mitchell, n.d.). The Word Association Test devised by Jung was an experimental method which provided an objective basis for some of Freud’s ideas, to identify complexes Jung used a tool called the psychogalvanometer (Lu, 2012). Psychogalvanometers as explained by Jung (1947) measure skins resistance of a miniscule electrical current, Jung further states that a persons general mood and immediate emotional reactions influence and alter the electrical resistances magnitude. Causes of skin resistance influences and changes can be attributed to altering levels of cortical arousal. Transference as mention by Sanders (1989) is a useful way of attuning to the clients progress.
The central focus of Psychoanalysis has to do with past experiences and sexual orientation and how each affects every decision the patient makes. (Freud, 1910, 180). It also has the “surrogate relation” to which same emotions from past experiences are replaced by a different memory making the patient get rid of pain through suppression of memory. On the other hand Humanism is based on the patient as being a whole and helping the patient succeeded by understanding the self concept and how person centered therapy needs to be match up to the actualizing tendency (Thorne, 2011,
The psychodynamic approach to leadership has its roots in Sigmund Freud´s (1938).Emotionally disturbed individuals and psychological theories of personality development form the basis of psychodynamic approach. One branch of psychodynamic theory is called psychohistory, which attempts to explain the behaviour of famous historical figures (in text citation Kets de Vries 1999). This approach gives importance making leader obtain good understanding on personality of oneself and to give importance and also encourages the group members to understand their personalities. This makes the team members to understand their reactions to the leader and each other. Important concepts in psychodynamic approach to leadership include e.g.
Here he comes to a junction where he considers the nature of the body and the soul/mind and says that he imagines the soul as an ether that runs throughout the body, but recognizes that he cannot apply qualitative observations to it that suit his sensibilities like he can for the body. By, accepting that he can never be positive about his senses of perception or that the body exists, he realizes it cannot logically be the role of a soul to sustain or nourish the body. He then looks to the notion of imagination and how one must be careful not to invent things with the imagination because they are inherently false. This means that you cannot use imagination to elucidate the true nature of the world, which he would be doing if he imagined the body and soul as anything physical without corroborating evidence. His final thoughts on the subject are that he is having difficulty completely letting go of the idea that the body is known better than the mind, but he knows that it cannot be correct because there is no rationale that allows him to know something which is doubtful such as the body, better than the mind which has survived his skepticism.
On a side note, it seems Freud here was arguing, whether intentionally or not, that a repetitive, traumatic dream was a wish in another wish. Popper reckoned that Freud’s response was merely a twist of words. But clearly, Freud did give a valid explanation as to why he had had to cancel the amendment of his theory. So it seems as if Popper disagreed to confer scientific values to any theory for which the theorist came up with reasoning against contradictory occurrences. In other words, it did not significantly matter to Popper whether the response to should-be disconfirming results was of valid reasons or makeshift excuses; as long as there was a response, the theory would no longer be permitted in the scope of