SILICA FUMES Definition Silica fume, better known as microsilica,is a non-crystalline polymorph of silica(silicon dioxide). Silica fume is an ultrafine powder that is collected as a by-product elemental silicon and alloys of silicon .Further it consists of spherical particles whose average diameter remains 150nm.It is often confused with fumed silica but its production process, particle characteristics and fields of application are all different from those of fumed silica. Meaning Silica Fume Production Physical Characteristics Specific Gravity :- 2.2 Specific surface area :- 20,000Sq.meters /Kg Particle size :- < 1 micron with Avg. Dia of 0.1 micron Particle Spherical in shape. Amorphous in nature.
Introduction to glycogen and glucose Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in animals and fungi. The polysaccharide structure represents the main storage form of glucose in the body. In humans, glycogen is made and stored primarily in the cells of the liver and the muscles hydrated with three or four parts of water. Glycogen functions as the secondary long-term energy storage, with the primary energy stores being fats held in adipose tissue. Muscle glycogen is converted into glucose by muscle cells, and liver glycogen converts to glucose for use throughout the body including the central nervous system.
It is a clear, odorless liquid, and has a sweet taste. It is commonly used in soap. Glycerin can make the bubbles last longer and make the soap film more flexible. The molecular formula of glycerin is C3H5(OH)3. It is a chain of three carbon atoms, and each carbon atom is bonded to a hydrogen atom and a hydroxyl group.
This is because the the lower member is a very polar molecule therefore the very polar alcohol/carboxylic acid would react with the very polar water molecules. In this experiment, 1-butanol is slightly soluble in water but ethanoic acid is very soluble in water. The reason why the higher members which is 1-butanol in this case have non-polar and polar bond and they are only slightly soluble in water is because the non-polar 1-butanol is dominant to the very polar water molecule, hence making it a non-polar
A measured amount of gel (0.5 g) was placed on fixed glass slide with a circle of 1cm diameter; the movable pan with a glass slide attached to it and was placed over the fixed glass slide, such that the gel was sandwiched between the two glass slides for 5min. The increase in the diameter due to spreading of the gel was noted and spreadability was determined using the
Glycerol is an organic compound that consists of three-carbon chain with a hydroxyl group attached to each carbon and it is physiologically harmless . Glycerol has the following of physical and chemical properties such as high boiling point, negligible vapor pressure, does not require special handling or storage and compatible with most organic and inorganic compounds. Glycerol is a trivalent alcohol with many commercial applications, presently finding its largest use in the pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic and chemical industries . Glycerol also can be employed as the raw material to produce variety types of chemical products such as hydrogen, ethanol, propanol, acrolein, 1,3- propanediol, lactic acid, succnic acid, citric acid, polyesters
Figure 2. Representation of 1.3-butadiene (mw: 54.09 g/mol) Styrene: A colorless to yellowish liquid that produce polystyrene by homopolymerization. Styrene is a derivative of benzene and could be found in small quantities in plants and foods. It is slightly soluble in water and very soluble in ethanol, acetone and carbon disulfide. Its rate of polymerization is low at room temperature but increases at higher temperatures.
Ethylene glycol has been widely used in the polyol process for the synthesis of metal (pure and alloyed) nanoparticles due to its strong reducing power and relatively high boiling point (~1970C). In this method ethylene glycol (fisher scientific 99.5%) is used as solvent and strong base sodium hydroxide (NaOH) (Qualigens 98%) is used as reducing agent along with NaBH4. Iron chloride tetra hydrate (FeCl2.4H2O) (Moly Chem 98%), Cobaltous acetate (Co(CH3COO)2.4H2O) (sd-fine chem. Limited 99%) are the metal precursors used in this Co and FeCo synthesis, PVP (C6H9NO)n (sigma Aldrich 99.9%) acts as surfactant. 2.1 Synthesis of Co Nanoparticles 2.1.1 Experimental
The methoxide ion needed for the biodiesel production reaction. CH3OH + Na+ + -OH → Na+ + -OCH3 + H2O Fats and oils are mainly composed of triglycerides, formed by 3 fatty acid molecules bound to a glycerol backbone. During transesterification, methanol is deprotonated in the presence in the presence of NaOH, resulting in a strong nucleophile. This compound then reacts with the fatty acids of in