This means that people’s disciplines and actions seek some purpose that can be viewed as good. For instance, the good that is sought after by those who practice medicine would be health. It is important to note, some actions may not be good by everyone’s standards, but they are at the very least subjectively good to the agents performing the actions. Next, Aristotle reaches the second part of his argument by explaining that there is a hierarchy of good; meaning that some actions seek a good that is not intrinsically good in and of itself, but is only good because it results in something else that is good. If we follow this line of thinking there must be a superordinate good that all actions ultimately seek.
It is critical to recognize Mill’s argument that a degree of contentment can exist in periods of less happiness. However, Aristotle’s view of perceiving wellbeing or goodness as ultimate is more pronounced. Worth emphasizing, Aristotle deeply explores his arguments basing them on functions of a rational man and virtues out of habits. Today, a virtuous citizen is one whose actions are inward, in response to conscience and moral obligations as a member of society. Such a person, not waivered with intensities of pleasures, honor, and wealth but seeks to have a satisfactory level of happiness with friends, co-workers, and family among other
In other words, ego mediates between the urges of the id and the moral strictures of others in the super-ego. It is the decision making component of personality. Ideally the ego works by reason. Yet Freud states that “In popular language, we may say that the ego stands for reason and circumspection, while the id stands for the untamed passions.” Another province, of the psyche, which he called the superego, is really a projection of the ego. The superego almost seems to be outside of the self, making moral judgments, telling us to make sacrifices for good causes even though self-sacrifice may not be quite logical or rational.
Although this argument suggests the absence of equality produces a better friendship and life, I will defend Aristotle’s view by presenting textual evidence from of Nicomachean Ethics proving otherwise. One of the main themes of Book VII in Nicomachean Ethics is Aristotle’s observations related to friendship, since he deemed life meaningless without it. While doing so, he identified and explained three kinds of friendship; friendships of pleasure, friendships of use, and true friendship. Aristotle states the former two are circumstantial and fleeting, particularly with friendships of pleasure. He points out that this type of friendship tends to form among young people since they live their lives under the same shortsighted circumstances,
The voice of conscience acts as a moral sensor, which is triggered whenever we face an ethical behaviour and fires the alarm once the morality is breached. Utterly, It is up to our will whether to listen irresistibly to the voice that is what Kant calls it “moral predisposition” or mute it which consequently leading to immoral behaviour. The previous argument explains the moral law imposed by Kant. Furthermore, he emphasised that people are rational beings act according to their morals, he considers people as a moral agent and ought to act morally and willingly motivated by the
Aristotle believes that when humans commit virtuous actions, they cannot be pained for those virtuous actions. If the human is pained because of an action in which the commit, then it is not considered virtuous. Given the right education, it should make us take desire in what is moral
This is particularly so since it seems that, according to Aristotle’s philosophy, the good life is reserved for a select few who were fortunate enough to grow up in an environment conducive to their success. This disillusionment probably arises through the differing concepts of ‘good’ between Aristotle’s time and ours. We usually use the term ‘good’ in order to express a moral judgement; for example, ‘respecting your colleagues is good.’ But understood in a more comparative sense Aristotle’s use of the word ‘good’ merely outlines usually accepted facts. Most would agree that it is better to have friends than to be lonely, or to be financially secured than to be
Given these points, being able to form a virtuous habit and applying it to situations will not only create a morally virtuous person but also an virtuous intellectual. If the individual is reluctant at giving back a valuable item that someone had lost to fulfill his or her own desires then that person is not considered virtuous. While, another is more than ready to help that person in distress, and if he or she already had been practicing good virtuous ethics then that individual is already like
They not only want the good, but they also realize that they must work to find this good. Similarly, a good friend goes out of their way to bring good things to their friend; simple words or thoughts do not make a good friend. An individual does good things for themselves or equivalently “for the sake of [their] thinking part” (1166a). This means that an excellent person does what is healthy or beneficial because of internal factors, not superficial or external ones. A good friendship has these attributes; a friend wishes well for their friend because of their own
This is supposed to allow us to determine which action has the most benefits or lower total costs and is therefore moral. On the other hand, under the rule utilitarianism, we look at individual acts to see whether they produce more pleasure than the alternatives. If the actions produce more pleasure or have lower costs, then they are the moral types of actions. Rule utilitarianism’s basic strategy is to limit utilitarian analysis to the evaluation of moral rules. Theorists came up with the rule utilitarianism as a response to different concerns critics had about utilitarianism.
In society, people should be ethically responsible with helping people. People act ethically responsible when one is in need of assistance because they let their sympathetic feelings of compassion take over their intentions. Ethical responsibility is a duty or obligation to ensure the individual’s well-being through specific commitments; such as saving someone from a certain tragedy. One piece of evidence from the text that demonstrates the sudden acts of ethical responsibility is “Can the Law Make Us Be Decent” by Jay Sterling Silver. Though many may argue that Silver’s argument is invalid, most will agree that his argument is in fact agreeable.
The theory of right and wrong characteristics or good and bad behaviors is concerned with morality; its role can shape an individual’s personality which can affect his or her call of action. It is only natural that we should have some kind of sense of duty and physical forces from our experiences that make us have moral laws. It’s an aspect of humanity which helps them make rational decisions and it also serves as guidance for mere goodness. Our existence defines who we are as an individual because of our values that help us see past our wrongdoing and helps improve our future. This can be seen in Sophocles’ story of “Antigone,” Antigone’s character portrays a strong individual who is loyal and values her family more than the society.