Different periods throughout China’s history have different names, known as dynasties, for the diverse positions within its society. Theoretically, all of the periods are similar, with the government and military officials ranking high in the hierarchy, and the average everyday people being under regular Chinese law. Throughout China’s history, the society has been organized into a hierarchic system of socio-economic classes, known as the four occupations. The four occupations system seems to have become distorted after the commercialization of Chinese culture during the Song Dynasty. Even though the social rankings within the country are not as predominant as they once were, the people living within the country still know their “place” within the society.
Beginning in the 18th century, many ancient civilizations began to decline including the Ottoman empire and the Qing dynasty. The Ottomans had reached their peak late in the 15th century. The turkic warriors demolished the Byzantine empire and established an Islamic society in much of the Balkans and the Mediterranean. To the east a new Chinese dynasty was emerging in the mid 17th century. The Qing emperors were not of Chinese descent, but were instead a nomadic group called the Manchu that conquered a declining Ming dynasty in 1644. The Manchu adopted many of the Chinese ways and allowed society to continue as it had. Although the decline of the Ottoman and the Qing dynasty had a few key similarities, the conditions of their fall
In the 19th and 20th centuries, various powerful nations sent colonizers to dominate weaker nations and expand their influence. This domination is called imperialism, which is still practiced today in moderation. Among the many countries shaped by imperialism were India and China. These two large countries were both colonized by the British who were one of the greatest imperialistic powers at that time. Although both India and China were colonized by the British, there were many differences between the two countries and the effects imperialism had on them.
China, up until the Qin Dynasty, consisted of independent states controlled by kings fighting each other for land and power. This time period was called The Era of Warring States, which lasted two hundred years. After this time, the Qin Dynasty rose to power. They conquered all other dynasties, and established a centralized government, unifying China for the first time. The dynasty that succeeded the Qin, the Han, continued the centralized government and they started a westward expansion that would encourage trade and cultural diffusion. The Qin and Han Dynasties were similar in that they both believed in a strong centralized government, which strengthened and unified their empires, but they differed in that the Qin followed the strict Legalism while the Han followed the more flexible Confucianism, and the way they interacted with outsiders; the Qin tended to be more defensive of outsiders while the Han were more interactive and wanted to build relationships with foreigners.
As the world of global exploration and colonization grew, many powerful European empires set out to see what the New World had in store for them. Each empire had their own individual agendas and incentives for colonization. This led to the many differences between methods of colonization and exploration in every colony and region. The Atlantic World portrayed these contrasts between the Spanish, French, Dutch and British empires. However, the British settlements along the Eastern seaboard differed the most from those of other empires because there were no established policies or methods in British colonization, which led to differences in the economics and culture of each colony depending on who settled it.
In various ways, Han China and Imperial Rome were politically similar yet also had their pair of differences. Two very well-known classical empires, both had highly advanced political systems for their time; Han China, lasted from 206 B.C.E to 220 C.E, and Imperial Rome, lasted from 31 B.C.E to 476 C.E. Many think these two empires where built with no previous influence, however; the Roman Empire had retained many aspects from the Roman Republic, and Han China from the Qin Dynasty. During their peaks, they controlled the majority of the world 's population because of their constant expansion of conquered lands, while their structure of administration and rule influenced many empires and future societies around the world. Aspects such as these, ultimately, led these two empires to be, arguably, the most influential societies in the world; as their legacies still live on today.
During the period between 1450 and 1750, European traders started to get more involved in Chinas and Japan's politics. One similarity between China and Japan in their relations with European traders is that in both countries european traders were welcomed at first, however the relationship soon turned sour. In China, the Qing dynasty sold limited trading privileges to European powers but confined them only to Guangzhou. The British was not satisfied with this arrangement, so they asked for more trading rights. As a result, In a letter to King George III Emperor Qianlong states that the chinese had no need for British products. In Japan, Europeans traders and missionaries were welcomed at first. But due to the disrespect of the new christian
The Ming and Qing dynasties were two of many dynasties in China. They were also in fact, the last two dynasties. The Ming dynasty ruled from 1368-1644, and the Qing empire ruled from 1644-1912. Both dynasties had long lasting eras of power because of strong framework from influential leaders. The Ming dynasty had Zhu Yuanzhang who was a successful war leader. The Qing had Hung Taiji and Li Zicheng who were key instruments in taking over the Ming dynasty and Beijing. Both dynasties had eventful paths to power, many achievements while in power, and a particular decline in power.
Rome from 71 BCE to 476 BCE and Han China from 206 BCE to 220 BCE are two very well-known classical empires. These two empires have similarities and differences in their political systems, religion, and social structure. The romans had a democratic government whereas China had a singular ruler. Imperial Rome was monotheistic and Han China was polytheistic. While they both had similar class structures, China had a three tiered social system and the Romans only had two divisions in their class structure.
Islam is a religion that controls their follower's daily lives. It quickly spread throughout many large and small civilizations all throughout the world. Two civilizations that Islam affected were the Byzantine Empire and China. The Byzantine empire was the section of Rome that remained after the fall of Rome and was a very successful civilization in its time. During the rise of Christianity, the Byzantine empire became a Christian-based civilization and used the church to solve its political and economic problems that sprang up after the fall of Rome. Similar to the Byzantine Empire, China was very successful before Islam. The main difference was that China remained successful all throughout the spread of Islam while the Byzantine Empire
As China grew with population and technologies, so did their government. Their military was weak but they had the idea to make iron and steel weaponry. The increase of weapons allowed the Chinese military to have more power over the people. Yet, the downfall of their era was their tactics in controlling their army and the rebellious citizens. As China’s economy and population grows, so does the growth of politics and Urban life styles. With the government ruling came the first Lady emperor to
The Spanish and Portuguese two vast empires that took over the New World and made it their own for over three hundred years. Spain and Portugal were able to maintain their empire for over three hundred years due to the following resources and advantages. Financial stability, military superiority, and slavery, which both utilized in order to dominate the new world.
The Roman Empire and the empire of the Han Dynasty in China were two empires of the second wave of civilization that, at their peak held half of the world’s population. These empires were similar in size however, they did not interact.
Japan and Korea were able to advance their way of life due to the broad acceptance of the Chinese culture. The cultural exchange resulted from immigration and trade within the region of East Asia. Japan and Korea were very assertive in maintaining the relationship among countries within the continent which assisted in maintaining strong and consistent trading. Trade originated in East Asia as early as the first century. Trade in China began in the regions of Han; the downfall of the Han dynasty resulted in regional division within East Asia. This division produced political maturity within the regions of East Asia. In 589, the Sui dynasty was established; this dynasty's goal was to reunite China with the other regions. As a result, the Chinese were then able to trade with other regions which made them become a successful model later on. After achieving a long history of success, China’s cultural methods greatly influenced Japan, Korea, and also acted as a good example for many other countries in the world. China influenced Japan and Korea through religion, art, government, architecture, and much more. When China's influences took place with both Korea and Japan, the practices created similar/different societies using the same techniques. China had strong ties with Japan and Korea due to regional trading; it's apparent that the Chinese culture had a significant impression upon the cultures of both
Spain’s empire was vast and held possessions in Europe, the Americas, Asia, and Africa for centuries. Even though the Spanish Empire lasted for many years, there are some important characteristics that defined it; I will name five characteristics that defined the Spanish Empire and what it was like to live there are, these include: the emphasis on religion that the Spanish crowns placed, the incorporation of other races as Spanish subjects, the opportunities for social mobility presented for some despite social stigma, the Hapsburgs’ soft politics and the changes brought by the Bourbons’ ascent to power, and the motives for Spanish Independence.