[ J. Elster, An Introduction to Karl Marx, (Cambridge, 1986), chapter 5, p.79.] Through history, society has managed to arrange and rearrange itself into complicated class structures. For example, the medieval era presented a feudal system, with feudal lords, guild masters, merchants, apprentices and serfs, which according to Marx’s modern bourgeoisie society is a by-product of the feudal society. The normative concept of exploitation, therefore as Marx speaks of it in the manifesto can be understood by its two distinct
Gentile stated, “Everything for the state; nothing against the state” (Heywood, Politics 48). Meanwhile, the theory of Communism was theoretically developed by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in 1848, with the writing of “The Communist Manifesto” (Heywood, Politics 41). Communism is a system in which all economics and politics are synthesized into one classless state which is most commonly associated with common ownership and people 's leadership by a political party. Although both ideologies coincide in a few aspects when in practice, Communism and Fascism feature different approaches to property and society. Similarities between Fascism and Communism First, under both despotic systems, the state controls the production system, industry, and trade.
Class struggles are a fundamental part of human history: The idea behind this according to Marx is that history is a series of stages, defined by their mode of production and the struggle between classes: "The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles." According to Marx, the current historical stage is the capitalist historical stage. This is the conflict between the bourgeoisie (middle class) and the proletariat (working class). This theory is supported by the historical stages preceding the capitalist historical stage which can easily be defined by their modes of production and class struggle, or lack thereof. For example, before the existence of civil society, there were no class struggles.
1. Communism: Communism is defined as the political and economic doctrine that aims to replace private property and a profit-based economy with public ownership and communal control of at least the major means of production and the natural resources of a society. This form of government is important because it is backed by the idea of pure equality and is known for being the highest, most advanced form of socialism. Communism fueled the leaders of the Russian Revolution, such as Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin, and Leon Trotsky. When Lenin was called into power after Nicholas II’s abdication, he immediately introduced Communism as Russia’s new form of government.
Collectivism, the practice of giving a group priority over each individual in it. A well know author Kurt Vonnegut is the author of a well-known dystopian piece by the name of “Harrison Bergeron”. This is a story set in the future and civilized with “full equality”. Another well-known story Anthem by Ayn Rand, is also based on a future dystopia. Anthem is based on a collective society, rather than an equal one.
A socialistic government is “a government in which the means of planning, producing and distributing of goods is controlled by a central government that theoretically seeks a more just and equitable distribution of property and labor” (Melina). This means that the government is in total control of where one works and how one starts there. In a socialistic government everyone has to be put into a job by the government. In the book, each person “try’s out” for a job and then the keepers decide if they want the new Glader or not during the Gathering. The Gathering elects the “newbie” into a job (Dashner, 101).
Holland Arrowsmith explains Marxism as a term which refers to “a hugely diverse set of social, economic, philosophical, historical and cultural theories”. Several theories such as social, economical, political and critical theories have been derived from Marxism philosophy. Marxism advocates equality amongst the class structure of society. Marxism is divided into two fundamental classes. According to Marx there are only two classes which exist: Bourgeoisie, which means powerful or dominant class and Proletariat, which means the peasant or working classes.
Capitalism is an economic system where the means of production is owned by private individuals. Marx believe that the solution to this problem was social equality (socialism). Belize is mixture of both a socialist and capitalist system because while the government controls majority of the employment and means of production, other means of employment are owned by private individuals (e.g. Bowen and Bowen
Whereas communism represents an idealistic doctrine that “aims to replace private property and a profit-based economy with public ownership and communal control of at least the major means of production and the natural resources of a society” (Dagger and Ball). Marxian
“The reason we have classes is due to a group sharing a common interest and economic position” (McIntosh, 1997:133). Class is determined on possession of wealth; together with the occupation are the principal bases for class difference. The main classes in Western societies are the upper class who was the wealthy, employers and factory owner, the middle class who were white collar workers and professionals and the lower class who were the ones in the blue-collar or manual jobs. In the developed countries there was also a fourth class, the peasants who were occupied in traditional types of agricultural production. The most well-known and important theories of class are those developed by Karl Marx and Max Weber.