The paper dwells into the evolution of the concept of reservations and the problems posed by it. It also provides a theoretical solution that will be helpful in reducing inequality. John Rawls and Affirmative Action John Rawls propounded what is called the “Ideal Theory”. The theory explains what constitutes an ideal and just society. But what it lacks is a solution to an unjust or a non-ideal society.
The extent of fairness in this method is however, rather questionable and the same can be said for Rawls’s overall understanding of fairness, especially when looking at practicalities, because Rawls’s theory is highly idealistic and his methodology allegedly universal. In this essay I will therefore take a political realist approach and critically assess the question whether Rawls’s connection between justice and fairness is applicable in practice and whether making this connection can be justified. I will argue that justice is a practical concept for which it is important that current societal factors are considered and in doing so I will first look at the practical aspects in applying Rawls’s theory and conclude that his association of justice cannot be justified when looking at the concept of fairness applied in a practical
Hermeneutical phenomenology was our topic as a group and this topic is a complex subject compared to the other social theories. As from what I have understood in this topic, hermeneutics is the art of understanding and the theory of interpretation. Hermeneutic phenomenological research is rested on the ground of subjective knowledge. The epistemology of this social theory is grounded on the belief that knowledge is made possible through subjective experience and insights. Furthermore, the ontology of this particular social theory is concerned with reality.
This essay will focus on Merleau-Ponty’s account of our relations with Others, as well as its relation to Sartre’s philosophy and how effective of a critique Merleau-Ponty offers to the Sartrean understanding of our relationship to the Other. Throughout the essay i shall refer to the relationship between the Individual and the Other, this is simply to mean the relationship found between the ‘I’ and the other humans they interact with who have questionable similarity to the ‘I’. Our relationship to Others is a significant area of discussion because it opens the problem of Other Minds, which entails the idea that I, as an individual, cannot verify that any other individual I interact with is conscious in the same way I am. Both Sartre and Merleau-Ponty discuss the importance of the Other in verifying the existence of the individual, and the extent to which one can be aware of the Other’s internal life, differing significantly on their understanding of whether the world is shared or closed. We will arrive at the conclusion that while Merleau-Ponty presents a successful and effective alternative to the Sartrean account, it is an effective critique because it returns constantly to the damning criticism that Sartre butchers the reality of one 's interaction with the Other and tries to over simplify very complex human behavior, such as social relationships.
The second major thesis in this book is the significant role that a racial identity has in our society. How we see others have an impact on how we create laws and access to quality education, financial and social resources. Furthermore, how we see ourselves is a determining factor in our individual success in those areas. Dr. Tatum provides the reader with non-objective information that supports her thesis, while also providing information that contradicts or expresses a different point of view from her thesis. The definition she uses to define racism is supported by facts and other reliable sources.
Ruth Benedict, an anthropologist, argues that morality is relative and based on one's culture or society. What could be morally acceptable in one culture is not necessarily acceptable in another culture. She believes that “the most spectacular illustrations of the extent to which normality may be culturally defined are those cultures where an abnormality of our culture is the cornerstone” (134). James Rachels, a philosopher, argues that Benedict’s argument is fallible. The conclusion of her argument does not follow from the premises.
Epistemology Is The Explanation Of How We Think. It Is Required In Order To Be Able To Determine The True From The False, By Determining A Proper Method Of Evaluation. It Is Needed In Order To Use And Obtain Knowledge Of The World Around Us. Without Epistemology, We Could Not Think. More Specifically, We Would Have No Reason To Believe Our Thinking Was Productive Or Correct, As Opposed To Random Images Flashing Before Our Mind.
Some of the early sociologists had very strong views on how society should develop and so whilst they might have used positive sociology they would also have dealt with normative sociology. Normative sociology deals with value judgements. The statement, “the government should restrict social security payments even if it leads to higher deprivation” is an example of a value judgement because it is built on the basis of individual beliefs and cannot be scientifically tested. Positive sociology evaluates by looking at whether the hypotheses successfully predicts the results. This has been useful in evaluating empirical evidence, but may have led sociologists to concentrate too much on easily quantifiable areas of sociology.
Theoratical approach The theory behind selfie is linked to the concept of 'looking-glass self ', which was first used by Charles Cooley (1902). According to Cooley, this concept suggests that the formation of our identity and the sense of ourselves are heavily relied on the reaction we experienced privately. This will leads our attention to focus on public self-consciousness, whereby people will establish their own identity and characteristic based on the people 's perception towards them. By using this particular concept, it can help us to further explain the reason why people nowadays are driven by the urge to take selfie even though it might cost their lives in the process. To further support the 'looking-glass self ' concept, Yeung and Martin (2003) state that the construction of a person 's identity is based on how we perceive ourselves as the same as other people perspective towards us.
This will ensure that they gather legitimate data and well-grounded correlations that can be used to create a new hypothesis or confirm or deny an already established one (Punch et al. 2013). Apart from that, Macionis and Plummer (2011) reveal that sociologists need to possess general skills such as theorising and critical thinking since they need to put meaning to their data and question everything they already