Socrates does not make sound arguments because although his premises are logical, they sometimes have nothing to do with the original argument. In Plato’s Euthyphro, the Euthyphro dilemma argument states whether the Gods love the pious because it is pious or it is pious because the Gods love it. In order to support this distinction, Socrates’ first premise in supporting this conclusion is the example of being carried. Socrates claims that there is a difference between something that is already in the state of being carried because it is carried or if something is carried because it is in the state of being carried. Similarly, there is a difference between something being in the state of being loved because it is loved and something being loved
Reasoning is all the positive and opposing arguments that support or critique the thesis by using logic. Socrates was accused and charged with being a corruptor of the youth and denying the gods of the city but introducing other divinities. Socrates defends his case by using reasoning and logic. Socrates said that if every Athenian improved the youth while only he corrupts them, then is influence should not have a greater effect than all the Athenians. Socrates didn’t corrupt the youth.
Ostwald says that the Declaration tells citizens that they are equal, and therefore they have liberty (Ostwald 163). However, from Aristotle’s Politics, Ostwald deduces that the relationship between equality and liberty in Athenian democracy is reversed (Ostwald 163). Ostwald concludes that “Freedom is the precondition for equality, not equality for freedom,” a sentiment that reflects the importance of being “free” in Athenian society (163). As the definition of citizen in ancient Athens was quite limited, Aristotle’s treatment of those who deserved equality made sense. Only men who were already free and had reached adulthood were worthy of those deserving equality.
The only difference between a monarchy and an aristocracy is that in the first case virtue is centered in one person. But since the ideal conditions do not exist for an ideal state, one should think of the best attainable only. For example: extreme wealth makes one arrogant and incapable of buying and extreme poverty makes one slavish and incapable of commanding. According to Aristotle that the state ids the best where the middle class is strong. Aristotle calls such a state by the name of polity.
Athens and Sparta are better in different aspects. For example, Sparta discouraged superfluous arts, but Athens appreciated them. This aspect is evident by the Athenian ruins, and that Sparta has no remnants of their history besides the tombs of their generals. This aspect concludes that Athens had more to lose during the Peloponnesian War. Athens had an empire, they stood up for values, they were the school of Greece, while Sparta were clinching onto their dear iron bars.
Aristotle believed that the middle class was least likely to shrink from rule. Those who have too much good fortune, strength, wealth and friends are neither willing nor able to submit to authority. If they experience luxury when they are brought up they never learn the habit of obedience. The poor on the other hand who are too degraded. So that the one class can’t obey and the other may only rule to
Originally, what gave rise to his activity of walking around the city with a purpose of finding someone who possess wisdom greater than he had himself, was the provision of the oracle of Apollo that ‘there is no one wiser than Socrates’. Socrates hastened to interprete that as he is the wisest, however different interpretetions of oracle’s could have been done. Interpretations Socrates did not consider are: if there were no one wiser than Socrates that could mean that a) all man are equally wise, and, b) undefined number are as wise as Socrates. Anyway, Socrates endeavoured to challenge Pythian prophecy, which already could have been considered as an act of impiety by the common people. Additionaly, Socrates claimed to have been possessing the divine providence that restrained him from perfoming certain actions but never urged him to do anything, and that same voice did not restrain him from questening people and pointing out they know
During this time, Athens supported a democracy. In their democracy, every male was required to participate regardless of his social standing. In the Athenian government, “no one, so long as he has it in him to be of service to the state is kept in political obscurity because of poverty.” This represents the Athenians belief that the people should have a role in politics and not just officials. The Athenians wanted to ensure equality and respect throughout the polis. Like the Athenians, the Spartans supported the idea that wealth should not limit a person.
The unwillingness to compromise with each other in the play Antigone cost people their lives. In the play Antigone by Sophocles, Antigone argues that the laws of the Greek gods’ are much more important than the laws of man but Creon believes that the laws of man are above the laws of the Greek gods’. Both Creon and Antigone refuses to compromise whether to follow the Greek god’s law or man’s law. The tragic end of Sophocles’ tragedy Antigone comes about because of the actions of Haemon, Creon, and Antigone.
The system of government was based on philosophy rather than belief of something higher like gods. The Greeks believed in the ability of men to think rationally and govern based on reason. Greece believed more in what they could see. The Greeks government was run through the citizens, it was voted on who would rule; it was not like India where the rulers were based on patriarchy. Some might argue that Ancient India and Greece were more similar rather than different, however Greece and India were more different than they were similar.
Sparta government was ruled by two kings and three Ephors, and a Council of Elders this government was called oligarchy meaning it’s ruled by a small group. Life in sparta was different than athens because sparta had no interest in art,music and education. Everything was centered in sparta was focused on the military. My opinion strengths did not outweighed the weakness of sparta education and I will explain how the strength was the most important than caring the weakness of sparta education.
Furthermore, Solon developed trade and manufacture in Athens, largely through attracting skilled craftsmen to settle there. He especially encouraged pottery since Attica had excellent clay for ceramics (88). On the other hand, Sparta had no fortifications, claiming its men were its walls. Therefore, Sparta is remembered for being a military state always ready for war, but not against other city-states so much as against its own subjects (89). Spartan government, in sharp contrast with the democracies found in other city-states, kept elements of the old monarchy and aristocracy.
Even if his actions are for “taking care of the commonwealth,” Pericles reduces the political power of the people to practically zero. As Thucydides puts it “Athens [is] in name a democracy, but in fact a government by its first man.” Athens becomes a tyranny even if benevolent (57). In this case, Pericles’ interests fall in line with Athenian interests, but later demagogues will not and cause disastrous consequences for Athens. For example, Alcibiades will successfully argue for the Sicilian Expedition to “this command” to win glory for himself (117). Furthermore, power is taken and concentrated in the few, which further reduces the power of the people.
Socrates, one of the greatest minds go Ancient Greece’s was no exception. As a sophist, Socrates was considered a teacher of the noble. Sophist of Greed taught young men ‘arete’: excellence or virtue for a price. However, Socrates wasn 't a regular sophist, he never accepted any monetary rawer for his ‘teachings” (b316,p813) and he never actually taught anything but rather trained minds to think. Socrates states at the trail that he doesn 't have any true knowledge and he believed that in order to have any true knowledge one must be able to produce a single, clear definition of a subject without any exclusions to the rule, something that he was never able believed that he couldn 't do .Rather than use he own opinions to teach his pupils what to think , Socrates used “systematic questioning” (b136p813) to help clear their own minds and reach their own conclusions just by thinking.