The seven main principles were rectitude, courage, benevolence, politeness, honor, honesty, and loyalty. Each principle had a different meaning in the way they should live out their warrior lives. Rectitude also referred to as justice is the strongest of all the virtues. This is one’s power to decide on an action according to the reason, also without wavering on doubt. For example, in a fight, a warrior should use rectitude to know when to strike so he may kill his opponent at the exact time it was meant to happen.
Aristotle defined a virtue as a good habit formed by rationally shaping one’s desires in order to reach a mean between overreaction and under reaction (Prof. Skerker). Virtues are only acquired through the habituation of doing the right things voluntarily. Aristotle also believed that a person doing the right thing and reaching the mean of a virtue should be brought pleasure by their actions. In a class discussion we defined character as the sum of all of our virtues, combined with how we use those virtues to influence our decisions and actions. The virtues I found most applicable in this case study are: integrity, humility, and loyalty.
They neglected and almost "ignored" the discoveries made during the Dark Ages and revisited the views during the ancient Roman and Greek eras. Along with humanism, secularism was a value highly evident during the Renaissance. Secularism focused on the value of wanting worldly desires, such as mansions, lavish banquets, and extravagant clothing. People, including religious leaders, such as high priests became more worldly during the Renaissance. They were more concerned with materialistic motives rather than their spiritual needs and duties, often neglecting their duties as leaders of the Church.
Aspects such as these, ultimately, led these two empires to be, arguably, the most influential societies in the world; as their legacies still live on today. Political integration between both empires had both similarities and differences, most notably being different with the ways they chose those to rule. In Imperial Rome, bureaucracy relied on local elites (landholders) and the middle-class citizens to control provinces. Imperial Rome was far less complex, compared to the bureaucracy of Han China. Many official positions within the government were bought or became hereditary through family wealth as opposed to earned by merit, due to this fact, the Roman bureaucracy often suffered from poor governance.
Politeness is a social practise that reflects the historical developments and political environment within a country. Politeness in contemporary china is a dynamic practise which involves the participants own perceptions, thoughts and feelings about distance, the relationship status and power relations between them and the person they are interacting with. In China, there is a very specific set of rules to follow when introductions are made: • The younger should be acquainted with the elder first. • The man should be acquainted with the woman
Loyalty and faithfulness are traits expected of all mankind. They are the virtues that embody the highest ideals of a modern day person. Even from the ancient Greeks, loyalty demanded of human beings. However, during that time of era, these traits were only expected from certain people. In Homer’s epic poem The Odyssey, the basic standards of loyalty and faithfulness are varied depending on the individual’s gender and relationships.
According to Roman tradition, “what makes a good society” lies within the ability to obtain and sustain power, wealth, and stature, as well as being Roman, despite the Roman culture’s emphasis on moral values. But the gradual transformation of the Roman society and leadership, bloomed the realization of Christian traditions and morals converting the meaning of what makes a good society in the Roman tradition. As a polytheistic culture, the Roman’s legacy is grounded in stories of the gods, beginning with Romulus and Remus, sons of a Latin Princess and Mars, the god of war. Rome was said to be founded by Romulus in 753 BC and named for him. Early Rome was ruled by kings in tandem with the Senate until 509 BC.
This is known as a person’s virtue. In this case, a virtue is a disposition. Aristotle connects mankind’s function (reasoning) to virtue (excellence) by stating, “human good turns out to be activity of soul in conformity with excellence, and if there is more than one excellence, in conformity with the best and complete” (Pojman & Lewis 270). If someone wants to reach happiness, then they must live in accordance with virtue. This way of life will assure them that the activities they partake in are proper.
“Patience is a virtue.” Is a famous quote by Elon Musk that everyone has heard at least once in their life, often by their mothers’. With patience one can avoid making hasty decisions, that could lead to severe consequences. In Homer’s epic poem The Odyssey, the Greek culture’s belief that life’s obstacles teach the importance of patience is displayed through Odysseus’s personal hero’s journey to return home and be reunited with his wife and son. The crossing of the first threshold begins with the Trojan War, Odysseus is being introduced to a world that is not his own, this story demonstrates Odysseus’ patience because of the years he spent planning to defeat Troy. The Trojan War lasted more than ten years until the morning the Greek armies retreated from their camp, leaving a large wooden horse outside the gates of Troy.
Cultural values v.s. Humanity In the editorial it was noted, “Western Countries value the individual above society; in Asia, he said, the good of society is deemed more important than individual liberties. This comfortable bit of sophistry helps governments from China to Indonesia rationalize abuses and marginalize courageous people who campaign for causes like due process and freedom from torture” (The New York Times 179). “Time to Assert American Values” is a editorial written by The New York times. The editorial focuses on the controversial opinions on Michael Fay’s case.