The 10.00 mL graduated cylinder was refilled with deionized water and was poured into the same 500 mL plastic bottle. Using a 50 mL graduated cylinder, the remaining 480.0 mL of deionized water was added to the 500 mL plastic bottle. The lid was secured over the bottle and the contents were then shaken thoroughly. A piece of tape was placed onto the bottle with the groups names, and space for the concentration of NaOH and standard deviation to be written at the end of the experiment. After 0.1 M NaOH solution was prepared, the next step is to standardize the NaOH solution by using titration.
• In order to stabilize the reactor and colorimeter both of these instruments are turned on. • Sulphuric acid and acetone were added to the 2mL of waste water sample and in this way value of COD was calculated. • The sample was then shaked well and then it was shifted to the reactor block for about two hours. • After that it was kept in the cooling rack for 15 minutes. TDS TEST • An analytical balance of about 0.0001 g was used.
Microcalorimetry experiment was performed on Setaram−C80 heat flow calorimeter coupled to a multiport high-vacuum homemade glass manifold. A specific amount of the sample (approx. 500 mg) was taken into a sample cell, reference cell was taken as empty and together they are connected with Pyrex tee. The sample was heated from room temperature to 200°C under vacuum and kept for 2 h, then 3-4 doses of helium gas were introduced into the system to remove any excess residue such as moisture or organic impurity from the system. The system was heated for 4-5 hr under vacuum at 200°C and then cooled down to the temperature (50°C) where we want to perform the adsorption study.
70 mm) to remove debris and suspended materials and then poured into a 2 liter separatory funnel. For the first LLE, the mixture of 100 ml n-hexane and dichloromethane (1:1 v/v) was added and shaken vigorously for 2 min before two phase separation. The water-phase was drained from the separatory funnel into a 1000 ml beaker. The organic-phase was carefully poured into a glass funnel containing 20 g of anhydrous sodium sulfate through a 200 ml concentrator tube. Following the second and third LLE, the water-phase was poured back into the separatory funnel to re-extract with 50 ml of the same solvent mixture.
Another 5-mL test tube, labelled as B, was filled with 1 mL of distilled water. A drop of methyl red was added. Also, a 0.01M hydrochloric acid (HCl) was added in a dropwise manner from a syringe until the color of the solution matches that of the first test tube setup. The volume of the HCl used was recorded for the determination of the ionization constant of
To start an experiment of adsorption isotherm, Cu(II) aqueous solution of 100 ml with the predetermined varying initial concentration of Cu(II) in the range of 6.5-370.5 mg/l and the best activator composition of NaOH was put into the erlenmeyer flask and stirred using a magnetic stirrer at 75 rpm, room temperature of 298.15 K (± 2 K), 1 atm and normal pH. The experiment was stopped at 119 mins contact time for sampling. The samples of 1 ml were placed in a 20-ml vial and diluted with 10 ml distilled water, and filtered using a syringe filter. The filtrate was placed in 10-ml vial for the AAS analysis. To determine the concentration Cu(II) in the samples from the AAS reading, dilution factor was taken into
The final volume was adjusted with the same solvent to get concentration of 100 µg/ml. the solution was further diluted to get the concentration of 10 µg/ml, filtered through 0.45 µm filter tips , and aliquots of 20 µl from this solution was injected into HPLC by using an
91.5 lb/72 (molar mass of FeO)) ∴Selectivity of Fe=(10.714 moles Fe)/(1.271 moles FeO)=8.43 (mole Fe)⁄(mole FeO) Example 3.6: Chemical Equation and Stoichiometry Question A common method used in manufacturing sodium hypochlorite bleach is by the reaction: Cl_2+2NaOH→NaCl+NaOCl+H_2 O Chlorine gas is bubbled through an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide, after which the desired product is separated from the sodium chloride (a by-product of the reaction). An aqueous solution of NaOH containing 520.45 kg of pure NaOH is reacted with 386.82 kg of gaseous chlorine to give 280.91 kg of NaOCl. (a) What was the limiting reactant? (b) What was the percentage excess of the excess reactant used? (c) What is the degree of completion of the reaction, expressed as the moles of NaOCl formed to the moles NaOCl that would have formed if the reaction had gone to completion?