Department of Justice, n.d.). One way to reduce crime is to reduce the anticipated rewards. This can be achieved by a) removing the target, such as by removing the jewelry from under the counter after hours, b) identifying the property, such as by marking products with identification numbers, c) reducing temptation, such as by using gender-neutral telephone lists, and d) denying the benefits, such as by requiring a security code for a car radio to work. A second way to reduce crime using SCP and CPTED is to increase the perceived effort. This can be accomplished by a) hardening the target, such as by using unbreakable glass and slug rejector devices, b) controlling access to the area, such as by using parking lot barriers and fences, c) deflecting offenders, such as by closing off certain streets and by strategically relocating bus stops, and d) controlling the facilitators, such as by using caller ID and credit cards with photographs on them.
Policing policies including broken windows and zero-tolerance policy have different limitations on what can be stopped. The broken windows theory gave police a wide discretion when stopping citizens. During the time when broken windows was implemented, citizens were able to get away with low-level crimes. Once zero-tolerance began, the officers became more strict in stopping citizens which would make them feel targeted for the wrong reasons, like the color of their skin. The zero-tolerance policy was implemented to update the police’s discretion of what to stop and to keep crime down.
This theory suggests, the explanation to police transgression is to improve the psychosomatic selection of police officers so that the "rotten apples" are disqualified from the "barrel." Peripheral factors such as police sub-cultural customs, peer manipulation, and economic factors may pilot some officers to believe that antisocial or deviant behavior is the most suitable and most beneficial approach to their role as a police officer. The surroundings in which police officers work offers unlimited prospect for corruption and deception, and these environmental factors may lead to sociopathic behavior. Early intervention is critical for officers who show signs of stress, anxiety, depression, or any additional negative behavior. Periodic, ongoing psychological testing of officers, stress management training, and the existence of alternative intervention measures can assist in preventing the stresses of policing from leading to serious police misconduct (Griffin & Ruiz,
This is because when there is a need to investigate other cases or when there are various kind of cases to undercover, sometimes, the number of polices required for the task is more than enough. As a result, less armed forces responsible at the cross-border checkpoint area as more of them are distracted by other priorities. Consequently, this will cause an increase of illicit gun trading and also led to transnational organized crime and internal conflicts in the country. Moreover, gun trafficking have caused the criminals to become more audacious in carrying out their activities which resulting with some trepidation to citizens through their unethical way of using it. In other words, illicit trade of firearms have cause a menace to society.
One of the theories it speaks of is the Pyrrhic defeat theory. This theory states that the criminal justice system is created to function in a particular fashion in order to create an image of crime where crime is actually seen as the “threat from the poor”. (Reiman, 2010, p.5) “Reimans’s theory suggests that those who have power to change the system benefit from the way it operates: they can go on committing harms and accumulating wealth without punishment, while the country remains focused on street crime and poor minority criminals.”(Leighton 2010) In order to accomplish this “The system must actually fight crime-or at least some crime-but only enough to keep it from getting out of hand and to keep the struggle to substantially reduce or eliminate crime.”(Reiman, 2010, p.5) This means that by creating an image that our system is trying to fight crime, but at the same time allowing certain crimes to exist and scare society, it benefits the wealthy in several ways. First, it promotes that the wealthy population is
Others would say that they think it keeps young offenders from committing crime twice, that it will teach youth how to receive punishment, some would say it keeps crime out of the system etc. The reason why they are wrong because they haven't looked at the facts, they just looked at good experiences with YCJA foundation. An example I have a friend and my friend stole a car from a person in a community and crashed my friend had to pay for the damaged property, for the car and had to apologize to the people my friend stole the car from, after the whole process my friend did the same thing over repeatedly, what's the point? Well, all I think is that the YCJA is a waste of time but you don't have to because there are good things about it too it helps kids stay off the street and in homes even if its a group home. In my opinion, a group home, foster care anything like that is traumatizing toward kids in the program.
First is to increase the effort of crime by target hardening, access control or by monitoring entrance and exits areas. Second is to increase the risk of crime by extending the guardianship or strengthening the surveillance. Third is to reduce the rewards by reducing the benefit of crime such as concealing or removing the targets. Forth is to reduce the provocations, to eliminate and avoid this kind of provocation it is need to reduce frustration and stress on every individual, avoid disputes, reduce emotional arousal, neutralize peer pressure, and discourage imitation and fifth is remove excuses, in every store there are different sets of rules, this rules must be posted in every corner this will make them aware of the existing rules or policy of the store and it will also guide them. All employees must be alert as well in detecting shoplifter, upon entering the store there bags must be check and prohibited items must be placed in baggage
‘’The principle of manipulability refers to the predictable ways in which people act out of rational self-interest and might therefore be dissuaded from committing crimes if the punishment outweighs the benefits of the crime, rendering the crime an illogical choice.’’(http://www.biography.com/people/cesare-beccaria-39630) Beccaria believed that the criminal justice system needed to be changed, he thought the present criminal justice system was ‘barbaric and antiquated’. Beccaria also believed that certain laws should be changed and who they should benefit. He believed the system should establish the appropriate punishment for each crime committed. Unlike many of the other theories ‘’On Crime and Punishment’’ wanted to help and protect the rights of the criminals as well as the rights of the victims, he believes that punishment of the criminals should be that which serves the greatest public good. Beccaria also put forward in his theories the first modern argument against the death penalty.
Introduction There are several different programs focused on offenders. These programs range from religious, educational, medical and job training related. The main goal in each program is to reduce the chances of them returning back to their old habit that originally placed them in jail or in other words reduce recidivism. Recidivism is a very important element in the criminal justice system, because reducing or increasing the number of re-offenses in the community could be beneficial or make the community flood with criminals and their behavior. Without a focus on recidivism, officers will be arresting the same offenders repeatedly and the individual will not be getting the help they need, which could be the difference of them being a productive member of society or not.
PREVENTIVE THEORY Preventive philosophy of punishment is based on the preposition ‘not to avenge crime but to prevent crime’. It presupposes that need of punishment of crime arises simply out of social necessities. In punishing a criminal the community protects itself against anti- social act which endanger social order in general or person or property of its members. The real object of the penal law therefore, is to make the threat generally known rather than putting it occasionally into execution. It suggests that prisonisation is the best mode of crime prevention as it seeks to eliminate offenders from society thus disabling them for repeating crime.