Expectancy theory proposes that people engage in particular behaviors based on the probability that the behavior will be followed by a certain outcome and the value of that outcome (Vroom, 1964).Transactional leadership stems from more traditional views of workers and organizations, and it involves the position power of the leader to use followers for task completion (Burns, 1978).Leadership, then, is not only the process and activity of the person who is in a leadership position, but also encompasses the environment this leader creates and how this leader responds to the surroundings, as well as the particular skills and activities of the people being led. Transformational leadership, however, searches for ways to help motivate followers by satisfying higher-order needs and more fully engaging them in the process of the work (Bass, 1985).Goal setting theory takes a somewhat different approach, suggesting that people are motivated to achieve goals, and their intentions drive their behavior (Locke, 1968).Additional motivation theories include expectancy theory, equity theory, goal setting, and
Contingency Theory Contingency Theory Concepts A change in leadership research from concentrating on only the leader to looking at both the leader and the situation the leader is working in A leader-match theory: significance of aligning a leader’s style with the needs of a particular situation. Contingency theory is a theory by Fiedler that is a leader-match theory (Northhouse, 2010). In this theory leaders are matched to situations that they may fit in. Not only does the contingency theory look at the leader, but also it assesses the situation the leader works in. The effectiveness of a leader depends on how well they fit into a particular situation.
Many people misunderstand the role of a manger and a leader. The purpose of this essay is to explain what path-goal theory of leadership is, to identify the four styles of leadership styles of path goal theory, and to explain when they are most appropriately used. Ogbeide (cited in Obbeide 2011) defines that no matter what type of leadership styles are practiced, leadership mainly involves a powerful relationship between leaders and followers to accomplish a specific goal. According to Williams, McWilliams & Lawrence (2017) leaders are concerned with doing the right things like getting the most output with the least amount of inputs, while managers are concerned with doing things right and completing activities so that organisational goals are attained. Organisations need both managers and leaders.
Then in order to explain how the organization can collect and accomplish information general system theory and theory of Sociocultural Evolution has been explained. General system theory explains that in order to understand a system you need to understand its various parts and the complex interaction among them because despite of having different sections , organization need to share and interpret the information to accomplish goal. They need to work as a whole for conveying and understanding of information. And the core component of General System Theory is Feedback, which is the response or reaction from the members of organization which can be positive in the form of compliment or negative as criticism. But it should be recognized for the success of organization.
There are following main differences between leadership and management 1. Leadership is largely an inherent trait, by which a person leads individual or group of individuals towards a particular direction, whereas management is a systematic approach to manage people in an organizational setup. 2. Leadership relies on building trust and confidence in people, whereas management is largely based on
The transactional leadership emphasizes the transaction or exchange which among leaders, followers and subordinates what is required conditions and rewards to fulfill the requirements. The transformational leadership raise the moral maturity whom they lead, and convert their follower into leaders, motivate their associated, followers, subordinates, colleagues, clients to go beyond their individual self-interest for the good of the organization. There are two lines to define on leadership styles and situational contingencies styles which focused the difference between task-oriented and people-oriented leaders. Based on quantitative and qualitative leadership studies, we can found different theories such as trait theory, contingency theory, Charisma, leader-member exchange (LMX) theory which fits best for which different situation, and which style seem to be more effective such as Bass’ transformational leadership
Depending on the specific situation, which is why they collaborated to develop the situational leadership model. Situational leadership means “choosing the right leadership style for the right people,” according to Blanchard and Hersey. It also depends on the competence and maturity of the followers. This is a time in history when leaders look less like bosses and more like partners (Spar, 2015). “Effective leaders need to be flexible, and must adapt themselves according to the situation.” Paul Hersey and Kenneth
However, Podsakoff and MacKenzie (1995) establish that power alone is not suffice in explaining the effectiveness of a leader in persuading people. In understanding how leaders influence people, the leader’s influence behavior and skills must be taken into consideration. As suggested by Yukl (1989), an effective leader possess the expertise to perceive when to utilize diverse types of influence and the expertise required to viably complete these influence attempts. Knowledge of these requirements has directed more research toward investigating the exact types of behaviour used to apply
According to Andrew (1966), a successful leader contributes to group objectives and their relationship. Davis (1998), also states that leadership is the ability to persuade others to seek defined objectives actively. From the above definitions, we can understand that leadership is thus inseparable from the followers’ needs and goals as it occurs in a group. Like other human activities, leadership is difficult to pin down. In this regard, leadership is a concept that does not have yet universally accepted definition; rather it is agreeable in working definition by scholars who work in the field (Wossenu,
A simple definition of leadership is: "The impact of an organized group toward the realization of its objectives." This definition emphasizes leadership viewed as a process, directed at specific populations affected, in order to meet the stated objectives of importance. The Word Reference Dictionary (2003) defines leadership as “the activity of leading; the body of people who lead a group; the status of a leader; the ability to lead.” Yet another traditional definition of leadership is: an interpersonal influence directed toward the achievement of a goal or goals (Allen, 1998). This definition stresses the fact that a leader influences more than one person toward a goal. Proctor (2004), stated that some leaders are bom and others are made.