INTRODUCTION Muscle tissue is one of the four primary tissue types consisting elongated muscle cells that are highly specialized for carrying out certain responsibilities. Muscles are responsible for movement of different parts of the body; posture; respiration; production of body heat; communication; constriction of organs and vessels and contraction of heart. General properties of muscles: Contractility is the ability of muscle to shorten forcefully although its shorten forcefully, it lengthens passively. Excitability is the capacity of muscle to respond to a stimulus. Often the stimulus is from the nerves that we consciously control.
In patients suffering from Alzheimer’s, alterations in expression of genes related to apoptosis (such as Bcl-2 and caspases) were seen along with increased DNA damage. Amyloid-β protein is seen to aggregate in neurons of Alzheimer’s patients, which is a direct inducer of apoptosis. The over expressed genes and additional DNA damage act as triggers of apoptosis which in turn lead to manifestation of the disease
2.Homotropic modulation . 3.Heterotropic modulation. DESENSITIZATION: Desensitization of the postsynaptic neuron is ; the decrease in response to same neurotransmitter stimulus. Means the strength of synaps may be diminished in response as the action potential arrives in repid succession –ie refered as a phenomenon that give rise to so called frequency dependence of synaps . Our nervous system exploy this property for the computational purpose , and can turn this synaps to such means as phosphorylation of proteins involved .
Keywords: Odontogenic cysts, Odontogenic cyst fluid, Total protein content, Albumin, Prealbumin. Introduction The odontogenic cystic lesions include inflammatory cysts like radicular cyst, developmental cysts like dentigerous cysts and benign tumors like keratocystic odontogenic tumor which was previously called odontogenic keratocyst. Clinical and radiologic indices are often inadequate to discriminate reliably among these
On a cellular level, the activation of V2 receptors leads to the synthesis of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), which, in turn, results in the translocation of intracellular aquaporin type 2 to the apical cell membrane (131, 132). Aquaporin type 2 belongs to a group of water channel-forming proteins and is the molecule directly responsible for the vasopressin
There are two separate clotting pathways, the intrinsic and the extrinsic. These eventually join together to form the common pathway. The adsorption of the components of the contact system facilitates the activation of the intrinsic pathway of coagulation. This results in the formation of thrombin which converts fibrinogen to fibrin monomers. The thrombin also promotes platelet aggregation.
ENDOCYTOSIS Endocytosis is a process by which a small region of the plasma membrane of a cell ivaginates to form a new intracellular vesicle. The plasma membrane ivagination is termed caveolae and the caveolin is a protein which lines the caveolae. The central role of endocytosis is well exhibited in receptor regulation, neurotransmitters and the delivery of drugs and also endocytosis can be in other forms which are pinnocytosis and phagocytosis (Liang et al., 2010). With respect to receptor-mediated endocytosis, a specific receptor on the cell surface binds to the extracellular molecule (Ligand). The area which contains the receptor- ligand complex goes through endocytosis by becoming a vesicle.
Pathophysiology “ Multiple sclerosis cam be defined as an autoimmune disease that affects the myelin sheath and conduction of pathway of the nervous system (CNS). It is one of the leading causes of neurologic disabilities in young adults. It is a chronic disease that is characterized by periods of remission and exacerbation.” (Ignataviscius & Workman, 2013, p. 978) Multiple sclerosis affects all patient’s differently, progressing at different rates over different periods of time. “As the severity and duration of the disease progress, the periods of exacerbation become more frequent, however patient’s with MS have a normal life expectancy as long as the effects of the disease are treated.” (Ignataviscius & Workman, 2013, p. 978) Clinical Manifestations/
Thalassemia is the most common inherited disorder in the world that represents a major public concern. It is characterized by a defect in the genes responsible for production of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is a protein that consists of alpha and beta chains. If the genetic mutations prevent any formation of beta chains then beta-thalassemia occurs which involves abnormal development of red blood cells and eventually anemia (1, 2). Children born with thalassemia major are normal at birth, but develop severe anemia during the first year of life.
One of the most distinctive features of H.pylori is the genetic diversity between clinical isolates obtained from different patient populations. Most H. polyri isolates can be discriminated from others by DNA profiling or sequencing of corresponding genes due to mainly a high degree of sequence divergence between orthologs (3-5%).H.Pylori infestation is followed by continuous gastric inflammation in virtually all individuals. Worldwide, H.pylori-induced gastritis
The adrenal glands are located on top of the kidney and consist of the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla. Each conducts a different function. The adrenal cortex is the outer portion of the adrenal gland and produces steroids such as aldosterone which reabsorbs sodium and releases potassium. The adrenal cortex is vital to sustain life. The adrenal medulla is the inner part of the adrenal gland and produces adrenaline hormones such as norepinephrine and epinephrine that are used in sudden stress
It binds and stabilizes actin filaments, as well as regulating actin-myosin interaction in a calcium (Ca2+)/calmodulin (CaM)- and/or phosphorylation-dependent manner. (17) The domain of this protein includes binding activities to Ca++-calmodulin, actin, tropomyosin, myosin, and phospholipids. As
Fibrous Dysplasia is associated with osteoblastic defects along with increased bone resorption. It is caused from a postzygotic missense mutation in gene coding for one of the subunits. Some symptoms of fibrous dysplasia include: Uneven growth of bones, pain, brittle bones, and bone deformity. A few
Synergist muscles also help to create the movement. In the bicep curl the synergist muscles are the brachioradialis and brachialis which assist the biceps to create the movement and stabilise the elbow joint Type of contraction Concentric Contraction From the Sport and PE book by Kevin Wesson, Nesta Wiggins-James, Graham Thompson and Sue Hartigan I have gained some extra information on concentric contraction. Within the book it explains that this type of contraction involves the muscle shortening while contracting. A main example of this would be that this occurs during the upward phase of a bicep curl in the tricep. Eccentric Contraction An eccentric muscle contraction is a type of muscle activation that increases tension on a muscle as it lengthens.