Our foramen magnum is positioned under our neck which enables us to walk upright while look ahead. (Wayman 2013). There are many other adaptations that have occurred which work together to form bipedal locomotion which allows humans to walk on two feet, but working from a skeleton alone is not always as easy to define a prehistorically hominin from another anthropoid ape (Dunsworth 2010). The main distinguishing character which would be evidence for bipedal locomotion therefore is the size of our brains which is much larger than other primates. Modern humans have a very high encephalization quotient (Antón, Potts & Aiello
Bone tissue structure Bone is hierarchically organized. Zooming in the bone structure (Fig. 4a), we find the osteons or Haversian systems, which are the basic unit of structure of compact bone. Osteons consist of concentrically arranged layers, or lamellae, of compact bone tissue, that surround a central canal, the Haversian canal, where bone’s blood supplies and nerves can be found (Fig. 4b). Sequential concentric lamellae have alternate fiber orientations with each other, spiralling around the central canal .
The Metatarsophalangeal Joints are Condyloid Joints which allow various planes of movement. Flexion, Extension, Abduction, Adduction and Circumduction are the various movements that the Metatarsophalangeal Joint can perform. The structure of a Condyloid joint consists of an oval end of a bone that fits into a
The bonobo and the chimpanzee are physiologically very similar, so much so that bonobos were considered a subspecies of the chimpanzee for quite a while before they were destinguished as their own species. While the chimp is slightly larger, they are relativaly the same. They both are terrestrial and arboreal at times; The chimpanzee makes nests in trees at night. Though they look fairly similar, the bonobo and the chimpanzees vairy wildly when it comes to social and behavioural traits. Chimpanzees live in large groups of many male and female individuals.
Endochondral ossification and long bone growth in humans Endochondral ossification is the process in which the embryonic cartilaginous model of most bones, which supplies the longitudinal growth and is slowly replaced by bone. Endochondral ossification allows a growing bone to bare weight during its development. The endochondral process of ossification provides a framework for a more rigid skeletal material. Long bones of the limbs and ribs develop by endochondral ossification. Characteristics of endochondral ossification include, the presence of a hyaline cartilage model of the bone and the presence of cartilage, along with the bone during the ossification process.
Bonobos share 98.7% of our genetic make-up (DNA) (Carroll, n.d.). This leads too many similarities between bonobos and humans, but also some key differences. Being so that bonobos share so much DNA makes them closer to us than they are to gorillas (7 Facts about Bonobos n.d.). Bonobos have an upright skeleton, long legs, and narrow shoulders. They can walk biped ally which means on two feet.
Dogs all have canine teeth, but they come in different sizes. A mastiff could have very large teeth and a yorkie could have small teeth. All dogs have non retractable claws. This means a dog can’t make its claws go in and out like a cat can. Some dogs may be skinny, muscular, or even fat.
Typical Adult Anatomy: Bones A fully functioning hip joint is a vital portion of anatomy, from birth to advanced adulthood. The hip is responsible for the stabilization of a person’s body weight whether the person is static or dynamic. The physical joint is classified as a ball-and-socket joint, the head of the femur articulates with the acetabulum of the pelvis. With how the head is oriented in the socket, the joint is able to withstand tremendous amounts of pressure and allows it to be a strong and stable portion of the human anatomy.
Results and Discussion The group viewed each specimen in the microscope, the members then observed four types of tissues. Each tissue was identified. The results are as follows: • Epithelial Tissue - The epithelial tissue covers majority of the body surface and also makes up the lining of some internal organs.
They are called lymphoid organs because there is where the lymphocytes, white blood cell place as it is the main key of the immune system. Then, all the structure or organs of the immune system placed in the body. For example is the bone marrow. The bone marrow is the source of the blood cells include the white blood cells that are play an important role in immune system. The bone marrow has the soft tissue located at the center of bone.
The phalanges are not separately mobile, being bound by ligaments, so the claws from one functional whole. Its muscles work by means of contraction. They contain more retractor muscles than the extensor muscles. A retractor muscle, in sloth makes them cling onto the branches of a tree in a long period of time; they lack extensor muscles thus making it hard for
This study examined the differences in articular surface morphology of caudal vertebrae between prehensile and non-prehensile tailed primates. Articular surface is skeletal surface, which includes bone and cartilage, that makes contact with other skeletal surface as part of a joint. Variation in the morphology of articular surface can confer a greater capacity for mechanical loading, which is required for prehensile primates as they often use their tails to suspend their entire weight during locomotion. In this experiment, it was hypothesized that articular surface area and curvature in caudal vertebrae could be used to distinguish between prehensile and non-prehensile tails. The results showed that articular surfaces found in both proximal and distal regions were greater in prehensile tailed primates, in comparison to primates that were non-prehensile tailed.
They still have functional ears but its inner and not external like other seals. Thier hairs are short and have a dense undercoat, they can have a variety of colors. For example they come in light gray with silver dark spots, black , red , dark gray, or brown with white rings. They are mostly covered in spots and it comes in all sizes big or small. When they are pups their colors are usually in solid light gray, black, red , dark gray, or brown.
In contrast, when apes walk bipedal, it is energetically costly, but they compensate by stretching out their arms and leaning their trunk towards the supported side. The gluteal muscles on the supported side are able to balance the trunk by pulling up the unsupported side of the pelvis. Clearly, the pelvic changes helped facilitate efficient bipedalism in modern
Grevy’s zebras are know to have very large heads and a rounder ear. The difference between Grevy’s zebras and other zebras is that their appearance look a little more closer to how a mule would look like. Also they are a lot taller than the other zebras. On their belly it is completely the color of white.