His theories contribute several areas of psychology such as cognitive psychology, social psychology and developmental psychology. However his major influence the development of psychology and comparative psychology is originate from this theory of mental continuity of animals and human beings. Darwin’s theory of evolution speeded up animal studies in psychology. Before Darwin published his theories, there is no reason for scientist to study animals. Opposite to Darwin’s founding, there is clear distinction between animal and human being.
Some AI texts show that their authors view AI and it improvement as a set of design problems that human designers are expected to fix. Lee Spector uses Darwin’s theory of evolution to argue that Artificial Agents could have an impact on their improvement in the future, since the idea that AI will improve by itself was discussed in the past. He argues that agents that learn, grow or “redesign themselves to some limited extent” best achieve intelligent behavior. Since Intelligent Agents are most likely to know what could improve their performance and just like humans they can detect where their flaws are and where to go to fix them. However, Elizabeth Wilson discusses the need of emotions in AI.
Classical conditioning is a learning process in which a naturally occurring stimulus is paired with an adjusted stimulus over and over again until the subject elicits a conditioned reaction. This technique is said to have inspired behaviorism and is regarded as one of the most important discoveries in psychology. It is also known as respondent conditioning or Pavlovian conditioning in tribute to the Russian physiologist Ivan Petrovich Pavlov who was the first to discover classical conditioning around 1900. Pavlov was experimenting with dogs to learn more about their digestive process when he accidently discovered the phenomenon. He inserted devices in the dogs’ mouth to measure their saliva.
Using theory of narrative it is concluded that the use of narrators in storytelling enables the audience to determine connection and comprehension between different animals. Thus it allow readers to know about animal’s characteristics through anthropomorphism. Greedts (2016) present this research study which Illustrates the constant exposure to anthropomorphic animals escort children towards expansion of concepts. This study stated that anthropomorphic animals play a role in developing biological and realistic information for the basic learning of children’s towards natural world. This research study provides literature review of previous experimental studies on children’s exposure to anthropomorphic animals and role of these animals in developing factual learning and biological reasoning of children.
The term behaviorism referred to the school of psychology founded by John B. Watson based on the proposition that all things which organisms do — including acting, thinking and feeling—can and should be regarded as behaviors (Staddon, 2001) . And this behavior could be researched scientifically . According to Pavlov, "Respondent Conditioning” resulted from the association of two stimuli, such as causing dogs to salivate at the sound a tuning fork. Consequently, Skinner developed “Operant Conditioning” where the “Stimulus-Response” association was elicited through selective reinforcement (rewards or punishments) to shape behavior. In this regard, behaviorism assumed that a learner was a passive recipient and responding to environmental stimuli.
Darwin (1859)’s thought which concerned individual differences in animals paved way for measurement-based psychology, as it led to Galton’s interest to study on human variations and most importantly, the methods to measure the variations. He successfully demonstrated that many psychological characteristics would show similar distributional properties which implies that objective tests could give meaningful scores. Galton’s work provided considerable impetus to the development of psychometrics. Galton was especially interested in intellectual functioning and how each measure relates to each other. He proposed a diverse range of measures by using scatter plots and developed a measure of ‘co-relation’ of 2 sets of scores which was then formalised and extended by Pearson.
Animal experimentation is very serious. Animals are tested on because they are said to replicate almost identically and closely to humans. Soe animals have many biological similarities to humans that make them good models for specific diseases, such as monkeys, they are good for testing the polio vaccine because they are biologically similar to humans. Law requires animal testing, but people are trying to make animal testing optional instead. Currently, scientists are working on ways to substitute animal testing, such as using synthetic skin or human cell cultures.
Operant conditioning is accredited to a psychologist named B.F. Skinner. He is well known for his operant box experiment, also known as the Skinner Box. The Skinner Box is this experiment was used to train rats to tap a lever to collect some type of recompense, like a sugar pellet. Skinner discovered with his rat experiment, that animals could be trained to
Through extensive research within the field of neurolinguistics, scientist and linguists have discovered how the brain works, and how this can be stimulated through an essential element, such as social interaction, in order to develop the intricate system of verbal communication. This essay is intended to discuss the role of the human brain in the development of language as well as the connection with a critical period for its acquisition taking into consideration the case study of Genie Willey, the feral child. To start with, it is paramount to understand how the brain divides its functions, which at the same time corresponds to the physical division of the organ itself. Being divided into two hemispheres and connected by the corpus callosum, each hemisphere is specialized in the performance of specific functions. Generally speaking, while the right hemisphere is in charge of the execution of intuition, creativity, imagination, artistic awareness and holistic thought, the left side is responsible for logic, reasoning, analytic thought, science and maths, number skills and most importantly for our study, language.
Neuroscience has brought psychology to a new platform of understanding across the vast stretches of the discipline. Its gives us a solid resource to prove and disprove theories and, along with other methods of research, enables us to gather yet another prospective into the past and future concepts that the foundations of psychology rely on. The subject encompasses many features helpful if you want to be a therapist to an occupational psychologist. Basic understanding of this field has the prospect to really change the way you view yourself, others and the world around you and gives you a the ability to comprehend the biological reasons for why an individual is the way he or she