Lovette1 Emily Lovette Jennafer White Psyc 2301 January 29, 2015 The Bobo Doll Experiment Is human behavior learned through social interaction and imitation or is it an inherited gene? Albert Bandura believed that human behavior is a learned behavior. He contended that children that were exposed to an adult that showed aggressive behavior were more likely to exhibit more aggressive behavior. Likewise, children exposed to an adult exhibiting passive behavior would be more passive. He contended that the children exposed to passive behavior would be even less likely to be aggressive than the group that were not exposed to adult at all.
This was demonstrated in Bandura’s 'Bobo Doll Study' which involved male and female participants from 3 to 5 years old with half the participants exposed to aggressive models interacting with a life-sized inflatable Bobo doll whilst the other half were exposed to models with no aggression. Children in the aggressive condition repeated most of the physical and verbal aggressive behaviour whereas children in the non-aggressive showed virtually no aggression. The findings support the Social Learning theory as the aggressive behaviour displayed came directly from watching an aggressive model (Bandura,
The component processes underlying this observational learning are attention, retention, motor reproduction, and motivation. This means all behavioral, cognitive and environmental factors can affect the learning
The attention of students can be increased by using models that are viewed as competent, prestigious and similar to themselves. Through purposeful use of rewards and punishments, the motivational aspects of observational learning may be supported. These consequences, further, should shape the behavior of students when they are provided either to the learner or to a model. What basic assumptions/principles of this theory are relevant to instructional design? Specific assumptions or principles that have direct relevance to instructional design include the following: • The highest level of observational learning is achieved by first organizing and rehearsing the modeled behavior symbolically and then enacting it overtly.
For example as illustrated in the now famous “Bobo Doll Experiment” by Bandura, Ross, and Ross(1961), found that children who observed a model displaying aggressive behaviour towards the Bobo doll imitated that behaviour. In the experiment, he split the children up into two conditions whereby the children will observe either a aggressive or non-aggressive model. The children were then further categorized into male and female and made to observe same sex models. In the aggressive condition the
Jennifer Sutto PSY350-18688 Alexander Danvers 01 February 2016 The Transmission of Aggression Through Imitation of Aggressive Models, famously known as The Bobo Doll Experiment, was conducted by Albert Bandura, Dorothea Ross, and Sheila Ross. The experiment was conducted to study the concept of social learning. Banduras, Ross, and Ross wanted to see if children would mimic behavior displayed by adult role models, specifically aggressive behavior. They studied 72 children between the ages of 3 and 6 years old, with an equal amount of boys and girls. They used a matched pairs design, which is when the researcher groups off participants based on certain characteristics related to what they are measuring, and then randomizes them into groups.
(Phillips,1986) The social learning theory can be used to explain cultural differences in aggression which furthermore supports this theory. In the Kalahari desert aggression among the Kung San tribe is rare because the parents do not use any physical punishment, nor reward any aggressive behaviour. These findings suggest there is little to motivate the Kung San children to acquire aggressive behaviours providing evidence that aggression is not universal across cultures, be explained as learnt than innate. (Doug Ford, 2013). Psychological evidence has found that children can learn ‘successful sequences’ and once these scripts are established they are difficult to change.
In Sway: The Irresistible Pull of Irrational Behavior, authors Ori and Rom Brafman create multiple theories and claims that deeply elaborate on why humans act in certain manners. One of such postulations articulates the idea that people are susceptible to labeling others due to initial opinions. To support such claim, the Brafmans use a study on the effect of description: a professor is either described as “‘warm’ or cold’” and this causes students to give the professor a “high or low value” (Brafman 73). This instance, along with many others in the book, demonstrate the claim that people inevitably label, whether it is intended or not. In addition, multiple outside sources further support this claim.
Hoffman and Russ (2012) first studied the behaviours of sixty-one girls in a five minute pretend play task with the use of two puppets and three blocks. Each session was videotaped and the children were assessed based on the frequency of positive and negative affective expressions displayed as well as their comfort level engaging in the task. Adding on, participants were assigned another task whereby they had to tell a story based on a picture book. The stories were then coded according to the “amount of affect expressed” and the use of emotion words (Hoffman & Russ, 2012, p. 178). Once again to ensure reliability, parents were given a questionnaire to score their child’s emotional regulation abilities.
Also skinner believed that language is learnt from other people via behviour shaping techniques. Jones and Daurs (1965) thought that people pay particular attention to intentional behavior. This theory helps us understand the process of making an internal attribution. They say that we tend to do this when we see a correspondence between mother and behavior for example when we see a correspondence between someone behaving in a friendly way and being a friendly person. Kelly H.H (1967) describes attribution theory process that operates as if the individual were motivated to attain a cognitive mastery of the casual structure of his