Skinner's Theory Albert Bandura

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Albert Bandura ( 1978) conclude that human behaviour can be explained by a reciprocal determination that not only involved in cognitive and behavioral but also in environment factors. He agrees to Skinner’s theory that behaviour can be learned but later he argues that Skinner’s theory did not focus on human behaviour. Bandura believes that human behaviour can be learned through observational learning. He believes that human will go through a modeling process and imitate what others behave.

There are four processes in observational learning (1925), attention, retention, production and motivational process when a person is learning a new behavior. He also propose that self-reinforcement and self-efficiency are two important aspects to maintain
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Bandura (1961) conduct Bobo Doll experiment to prove that children can learned behaviour through observation. He want to prove that aggressive behaviour of a child can be learned by watching an adult with aggressive behaviour.

Bandura, Ross and Ross ( 1961) had conducted an experiment to support the social learning theory. Total of 72 children ( 36 boys and 36 girls) aged between 3 to 6 years old from the Stanford University Nursery School are selected as participants. Pre-tested were conducted by two researcher. They are given likert scales to rate the aggressive level of the children observed. Then, they will categorized the children according to the level of
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Many argues that behaviour and aggressive can be inherited. Moreover, Bandura’s theory are too artificial as not all children will act aggressively after watching the aggressive video. Some of them can be just playing with the doll. ( Kevin Durkin, 1995) From The Catharsis effect, Seymour Feshbach (1971) argues that children can express their emotion and violent thoughts through the character in the movie and release their anger. Bandura’s ideas of learning through media are criticized as experiment shows that watching television can lower amount of aggressive. Wortman, Loftus & Weaver (1998) disagree with Bandura’s theory as they feel that it is unethical as the participants were force to act in an aggressive manner as those participants are not allowed to play with the toys they want and causes them to be annoyed and act aggressively. This aggressive behaviour are trained in the
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