Slave Narrative In African American Literature

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CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Black literature is taught as sociology, as tolerance, not as
Serious, rigorous art form _Toni Morrison
African -American history predated the emergence of the United States as an independent country, and African – American literature was similarly in deep roots. Jupiter Hammon who was considered as the first published Black writer in America, he published his first poem named, “An Evening Thought: Salvation by Christ with Penitential Cries”in 1761. Through his poem, he implemented the idea of a gradual emancipation as a way to end slavery. His idea was later reprinted in some works such as Le Mulatre a short story published in 1837 by Victor Sejour
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Crafts were a fugitive slave. If it was written in 1853, then it would be the first African – American novel written in the United States. The novel was republished in 2002 with an introduction by Henry Louis Gates, Jr .The work was never published during crafts’ life time. Some speculate that this occurred because she did not have entry into the publishing world. The novel situates itself between slave narratives and the sentimental novel. A slave narrative was nothing but it was a genre of African – American literature that developed in the middle of the 19th century. Slave narrative gives an account of the life, or a major portion of the life, of a fugitive or former slave, either written or orally related by the slave personally. Some 6,000 former slaves from North America and the Caribbean wrote accounts of their lives, with about 150 of these published as separate books or pamphlets. Slave narratives can be broadly categorized into three distinct forms: tales of religious redemption, tales to inspire the abolitionist struggle, and tales of…show more content…
E. B. Du Bois and Booker T. Washington debated whether to confront or appease racist attitudes in the United States. As segregation regimes took hold in the South in the 1890s with the tacit approval of the rest of the country, many African Americans found a champion in Booker T. Washington and adopted his self-help autobiography, Up from Slavery (1901), as their guide book to improve fortunes. Washington portrayed his own life in such a way as to suggest that even the most disadvantaged of black people could attain dignity and prosperity in the South by providing themselves valuable, productive members of society deserving of fair and equal treatment before the law. A classic American success story, Up from Slavery solidified Washington’s reputation as the most eminent African American of the new century. Yet Washington’s primacy was soon challenged. In his landmark collection of essays, The Souls of Black Folk (1903), William Edward Burghardt Du Bois, a professor of sociology at Atlanta University, disputed the main principle of Washington’s political program, the idea that voting and civil rights were less important to black progress than acquiring property and achieving economic self-sufficiency and then Du Bois’s striving to dramatize in his narrator a synthesis of racial and national consciousness dedicated to “the ideal of human brotherhood” made The Souls of Black Folk one of the most
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