On Southern plantations, slaves executed small passive acts of resistance, while others ran away. Slaves also showed resistance in the form of religious practices in order to find comfort in the face of oppression. Violent rebellions were less common and mostly unsuccessful, but open defiance brought terror upon Southern whites. Slaves resisted the oppressive rule of their masters through aggressive acts, passive acts, and the act of running away. The most common way to undermine the institution of slavery was for a slave to run away.
Throughout the southern states of America, slaves were forced into unfair and inhumane living conditions. They were made to do hard labor in the fields or in the houses of their masters under the threat of abuse or even death. Nonetheless, slaves managed to create their own culture and lives under this oppressive lifestyle. Many bonded together to achieve some semblance of personal freedom even confined by the numerous restrictions of a prejudiced country. Although slaves were forced into a life they did not ask for they still managed to produce their own culture and make their lives better through religion, music, language, family relations, and even freedom movements.
Introduction In Ronald Takaki’s book, A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America, Takaki argues that despite the first slave codes emerged in the 1660’s, de facto slavery had already existed and provides evidence to support this claim. While he provides a range of data, these facts can be categorized in three groups: racial, economic, and historical. These groups served as precursors to what eventually led to slavery codes to be enacted and the beginning of one of the darkest chapters in American History. Racial To the English, Africans represented the embodiment of sin. They saw their dark complexion to represent evil, this is due to their belief that the color black represents negative images; the English’s white skin signifies purity and innocence (Takaki 50).
After the massacre happened, slaves were seen as a threat, and the white population became extremely afraid and cautious of their actions. The relations between classes became tougher and much more strict. Slaves were seen as a potential threat, which could revolt and continue the revolution previously paused by the government. In addition, a few white people who previously questioned slavery now changed their perception and saw it as something beneficial, as it could restrain Africans from acting freely; therefore, dangerously. However, the rebellion caused many people who were in favor of slavery, and also against it, to unite in a common fear, a bigger consent, which affected all white people in America.
Women were abused by their master, physically, sexually, and mentally, while men were mostly abused physically and mentally. Most slaves practice polytheistic religions, but they shared the belief in a Supreme Creator. They kept their rituals alive by creating stories, healing arts, and songs. Music and dances played a vital part of practicing their religion. The slaves worked in either a gang or task system.
The British thought of slavery as a potential weapon to use against plantation owners – who, for the most part, were patriots –, so the British army promised freedom to those slaves who fled their plantations and stood up to their owners. Nonetheless, many black slaves were deceived and sold by the British to the sugar plantations of the West Indies, as Caroline’s mother. What is more, I believe Rinaldi comes across brutally straightforward about the sexual abuse suffered by black slaves, just like Caroline’s
One of the largest forced movements of humans was via the Trans-Atlantic slave trade route between the mid-fifteenth century and nineteenth centuries, which transported about 10-12 million African slaves into the Americas. The Trans-Atlantic slave trade formed a devastating relationship between the Europeans and Africans through slavery, an inhumane act of forcing drudgery among other humans. At first Africans themselves were enslaving each other through the freehold system. The freehold system was a way for African slave owners to employ slaves by giving them land in exchange for their labor. By 1441, Portuguese began to abduct Africans and forced them to work in Portugal as slaves with the help of African slave traders.
Men generally plowed the fields, while women hoed. Both male and female slaves were prevented from having three greatly important things, Family, Dignity and Control over their own lives. These were largely unattainable for any slave; however, these things were kept from slaves in different ways. Female slaves were faced with the prospect of being forced into sexual relationships against their will for the purposes of reproduction, and they were often raped by their masters and overseers. Perhaps more harrowing, many slave women had to witness their daughters suffering the same fate.
Brown states that “Colorism is the crazy aunt in the attic of racism” (Faisal, 2013). Colorism is sometimes referred to as the cousin of racism. According to social scientists, such as Edward B. Reuter (1917) and E. Franklin Frazier (1957) Colorism can be traced back to racist ideologies developed in European culture and then passed on during and after slavery. Before Europeans came to the Caribbean, there was the notion of White supremacy and when they came into the Caribbean, these values transferred into Caribbean culture. White slave masters showed preference to those African slaves who had a lighter complexion and they were allowed to work as house slaves, whereas the slaves with a darker complexion worked as field slaves doing all the hard, manual labor.
Louisiana in the 1800s was riddled with slavery, and it was necessary to push an image into popularity in order to hide the immorality of the slave owner’s actions. This is explored in Desiree’s Baby by Kate Chopin. In her story, she writes about Armand’s emotions toward Désirée, “Moreover he no longer loved her, because of the unconscious injury she had brought upon his home and his name” (Chopin, 3). As a social elite, the need to hold his status and keep his family in favor of others had Armand ostracizing his love for Désirée. As was expected of the time, plantation owner’s had to broadcast certain opinions about people of color.