Tituba is in her forties. Parris brought her with him from Bardados, where he spent some years as a merchant” (17). The Commercial slavery was the logical extension both of the need to acquire a cheap labor force for burgeoning planter economies, and of the desire to construct Europe’s cultures as ‘civilized’ in contrast to the native, the cannibal and the savage (Ashcroft et al., 1998). The slavery system not only consumed the black physically but also destroyed them spiritually. In The Crucible, Tituba, a black woman and slave, is suffering from loss of ambitious to return home under slavery.
Since the Chattel slavery has to do with slaves becoming personal property, the way that people of color were kidnapped and treated, they were bought, sold and traded at their owner’s expense. This is what is known as Chattel Slavery and since the Atlantic Slave Trade was done in such a brutal manner due to the way the black people were taken from their homes and separated from their families forever. Chattel Slavery will always be known as a form of slavery that relates to all the types of brutalities that the black people were condemned to suffer for many years. Even though at the beginning the slavery, this type of system was something that was not correct and legal, many people went ahead and decided to start the Chattel Slavery trade, even if many people did not know about it. Unfortunately for many blacks who became slaves, they were traded as merchandise for goods.
Introduction Slavery a system under which people are treated as property. Deprived of the right to leave, to refuse to work, or to demand compensation, slaves were seen as little more than cattle. The most well-known occurrence of slavery is that of the African people who were not only enslaved in their homeland but taken unwilling from such to become servants under European rule in the ‘New World’ (the Americas). Slavery in the Americas had a contentious history, and played a major role in the history and evolution of some countries, triggering at least one revolution and one civil war, as well as numerous rebellions. ‘Captive Africans and their descendants paid with their blood and sweat for the phenomenal expansion of human possibilities
To understand the development, evolution, and implications of racial slavery, one must first understand the collision course between the Americas, Western Europe, and West Africa. It ignited a brutal campaign resulting in the loss of human life and cultural extinction of African and native peoples, “Seeking wealth or land, they commenced a process of conquest and settlement that would alter or destroy the lives of the people who already lived there” (Clark, pg. 8). While no master plan existed for racial enslavement, the belief in racial superiority and possessing an upper hand in terms of socioeconomic standing, allowed for this racial element to become intertwined with slavery. There were some key developments in terms of the progression
Frederick Douglass’ Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave, Written by Himself and Harriet Jacobs’ Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl discusses how slavery dehumanizes and breaks down an individual to no worth. Douglass’ and Jacobs’ accounts are similar because they lecture against slavery with the work and obstacles they went through. Jacobs says, “For years, my master had done his utmost to pollute my mind with foul images, and to destroy the pure principles inculcated by my grandmother, and the good mistress of my childhood. The influences of slavery had the same effect on me that they had on other young girls; they had made me prematurely knowing, concerning the evil ways of the world.” (827) Jacobs explains that slavery has attempted to take a toll on her life with its physical, emotional, and mental abuse. Women in slavery were mistreated sexually as well, and in this case, Jacobs faced sexual oppression at a young age.
The subordination of African women supplied the British with the “legal foundation for slavery and the future definitions of racial difference.” This is seen in the Virginia Slave Codes, in which black femininity was harshly policed through laws that outlined racial differences and stripped black women of privileges, effectively blocking them from power. The Virginia Slave Codes explicitly denied black women of basic human rights, rights that white people enjoyed on an everyday basis. In every colony, European women and men lived a range of lives, from poor indentured servants to wealthy aristocrats, whereas black women were subjugated to the lowest of ranks. Because they were born in a black, female body, their status was disregarded and they were sentenced to generations of discrimination. The brutal and, oftentimes, fatal exploitation of black women during colonial America cannot be overstated as this exploitation has remained present in the politics and social life of black
It was the ‘legal imagination’ that fashioned slaves as property – producing connecting narratives where the acts of the subject were changed into being properties of the object . For instance, marriage was an option inaccessible to slaves; where slaves ran away, it was construed by law to be a fault in property; and where the Fugitive Slave Act (1850) allowed for an assertion of property rights by slaveowners for the purpose of reclaiming their runaway slaves . This is demonstrated by Toni Morrison in her novel, Beloved, when Sethe recounts: “And when the schoolteacher found us and came busting in here with the law and a shotgun…” . The institution of slavery was thus strengthened by the fact that these legal creations had been developed in response to historical conditions – specifically economics – and which resulted in the minimising of the costs and ambiguities associated with the slave trade . This is something Paul D comes to realise when he compares his value to that of Sethe’s: “He wasn 't surprised to learn that they had tracked her down in Cincinnati, because, when he thought about it now, her price was greater than his; property that reproduced itself without cost” .
Kara primarily focuses on sex trafficking, and shows how the term leads to confusions since policy makers only take into account “movement” and not “exploitation” (p.4). She explicitly agrees with the fact that “trafficking is not about movement it’s about slavery” (p.4) but she however fails to acknowledge how some girls in this situation gave their consent, knowing the implications, to make ends meet. To fill in this gap, M. G. Grant wrote an interesting book about “the work of sex work” and her analysis complete S. Kara’s, offering another viewpoint on how women get influenced and are “stuck” in their positions not knowing that they could actually be rescued, motivated by the same outcomes echoed in K. Bales analysis: fear and money. It’s important to acknowledge that one of the aspects of modern slavery that is different from classic slavery is how slaves are not always “captured” but choose themselves to work in the sex industry, as servants or in labor fields to support themselves and their families. Nevertheless, their vulnerability shouldn’t be a reason for other humans to violate their right of dignity, mentioned in the first Article of the Universal Declaration of Human
Prostitution is considered to be one of the oldest professions. Prostitution is an illegal business in many countries of the world and it is considered to be largely immoral. However, its scope is expanding simultaneously with the globalization of business and culture, which is the hallmark of our time. Researchers and activists continue to discuss whether it is possible to consider the purchase and sale of sexual services as an industry. Is it necessary to regulate the activities of prostitutes in a legal way, or should they be provided with legislative and medical protection?