1.2 Statement of Research Problem An informal settlement is mundane issue that has attracted vast amount of researches and discussions in the world today. Informal (squatter) settlements are a fact of life on the outskirts of many cities in the world, whether small, large or medium size (Benitez et al. 2012). The increase in the development of informal settlements has posed a number of problems to both authorities and the residents. Such problems include inadequate infrastructural facilities, insecurity of life and property, urban waste management problems, environmental degradation and urban mobility problem.
TOPIC: WHAT ARE SLUMS ITS CAUSES AND EFFECTS WHAT ARE SLUMS • A slum is a heavily populated urban informal settlement characterized by substandard housing and squalor. • While slums differ in size and other characteristics, most lack reliable sanitation services, supply of clean water, reliable electricity, law enforcement and other basic services. CAUSES OF SLUMS Causes that create and expand slums • Rural-urban migration • Urbanization • Poor housing planning • Colonialism and segregation • Poor infrastructure, social exclusion and economic stagnation • Informal economy • Poverty • Politics • Social conflicts • Natural disasters 1. RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION: The proportion of people working in agriculture has declined by 30% over the
The general characterization of homeless or street child is a child who lives on the street, in particular one that is not taken care of by a parent or other adults and who sleeps on the street because he or she does not have a home (Arabi, 2011). Homeless among children is one of the major problems in Dhaka city, capital of Bangladesh, like others cities of the world. Dhaka experiencing an increase in the number and proportion of homeless children living on the streets and in public places due to the increasing pressures of internal migration and rapid urbanization. They are visible by day and invisible by night. During the day they scramble for living with the rest of us.
• India doesn’t monitor water usage. • New Delhi literally cannot escape from the sewage it produces, because 45% of the population is disjoined to the public sewage system. Impacts: • A mixture of sewage disposal, industrial effluents, and chemicals from farm runoffs, arsenic and fluoride made the Indian’s rivers unsuitable for drinking, irrigation or industrial objectives. • More than 21% of contagious diseases in India are linked to unsafe water. • Millions of poor people are affected by preventable diseases, which are originated from insufficient water supply and sanitation.
Slums and squatter settlements lack the most basic infrastructure and services. Their population are marginalized and largely disenfranchised. They are mostly exposed to disease, crime and vulnerable to natural disaster. Slum referred to the products of failed policies, corruption, dysfunctional land markets, bad governance, inappropriate regulation, fundamental lack of political will, and unresponsive financial systems. There are approximately about nine countries that suffer from slum problems.
However, this right can be undermined by governments and urban bodies, which do not implement enabling development policies admeasures. In the absence of suitable measures, poor migrant workers have no residential security and are compelled to live and work in crowded slum sand unauthorized public lands/locations with poor civic amenities and access to basic services, and they undergo repeated displacement. They also do not acquire rights to basic entitlements .Instead the centre, states and urban bodies can pursue a coherent policy in this regard. Urban policy is becoming more exclusionary, increasing the cost of migration for the poor, and the anti-migrant rhetoric is becoming more strident in many states and urban
The filth and infrastructural degradation that have over taken Onitsha is as a result of poor urban planning. The failure of land sub-division and servicing programmes to keep pace with rapid urban growth has led to wide spread illegal and informal developments, hence the growth of squatter settlements or slum areas, for instance, the housing clusters at Okpoko, Fegge, Woliwo, Odoapku. Etc. According to Elekwa (1991), many development projects carried out in these areas were without regard to the environment and this poses potential health problems and other hazards such as flooding, congestion, confusion etc. This has hindered the extension of not only of water, electricity and solid waste collection services, but also adequate sanitation arrangements and road networks to such areas.
In a not so worse case scenario, some of the residents are forced to live in illegal houses, where the houses are illegally built on the land of others as they are too poor to afford regular houses. This, in turn, increases the rate of illegal housing in India. In short, the unemployed citizens below the poverty line are unable to live out normal lives as the might succumb to violence and engage with illegal
Understanding housing problems, informal settlements and Slums According to Abraham Maslow, Housing is a basic need, but due to the limited housing facilities to cope with urban growth individuals switch to informal settlement according to their income levels giving rise to low quality & income housing and slums in most developing countries where there is high concentration of low income groups. Informal housing can mainly be divided into slums, squatters and shanty towns. But for the purpose of this research Slums were given a greater consideration. In order to completely understand these forms of informal settlements, there is the need to draw a little light on them Shanty towns This refers to individuals or families who may occupy lands illegally by themselves and build their houses as best as they can (Grinberg, 2006). Shanty towns face characteristics of marginality and urban poverty such as
Why land pooling policy? Often when you roam around the outskirts of a big city you notice some small and underdeveloped sectors of land where people live in clusters without any proper organization. Due to lack of organization they always lag with the pace of their urban counterpart and while crossing through those streets you always wish, if these lands could also have the same facilities as your posh surroundings. This kind of situation brings us to an issue which requires utmost and urgent attention which is the much coveted, “Land Pooling Policy”. Now before coming to the why of it, let’s understand the why of it.