Small Saphenous Vein Case Study

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The small saphenous vein (SSV) is a superficial vein in the leg. It originates from the lateral side of the dorsal venous arch passes behind the distal end of the fibula and up the back of the leg to penetrate deep fascia and join the popliteal vein posterior to the knee [1]. This vein is considered the second largest blood vessel in the leg. Like most of the superficial leg veins, this vein features smooth muscle cells in its adventitia and the inner media [2]. Also SSV is in danger of becoming distended or having thrombosis [2]. On the other hand, internal thoracic artery (ITA) arises as a major branch of the subclavian artery in the neck, it passes posterior to the clavicle and the large veins in the region and anterior to the pleural cavity.…show more content…
These properties may be expressed in terms of a dynamic modulus, a dynamic loss modulus, and a mechanical damping term. Specifically, in DMA a variable sinusoidal stress is applied, and the resultant sinusoidal strain is measured. If the material being evaluated is purely elastic, the phase difference between the stress and strain sine waves is 0°. If the material is purely viscous, the phase difference is 90°. However most of biological materials have viscoelastic material properties and exhibit a phase difference between those extremes. Furthermore, as DMA is a thermal analysis technique, it’s well suited to analyze the viscoelastic properties of a biological material under the body temperature [8,…show more content…
In 1967 René Favaloro used a saphenous vein autograft to replace a stenotic segment of the right coronary artery. Later on for the first time, he used the same vein as bypass graft for the right coronary artery [10]. Dudley Johnson expanded the application of the saphenous vein autograft by using it as bypass channel for the left coronary artery [11]. Furthermore in 1968 Charles Bailey and Teruo Hirose and George Green used internal thoracic artery instead of saphenous vein as a bypass graft for coronary artery [12, 13]. Since then coronary artery bypass grafting has grown to become one of the most common operation in the world. Even though these bypass graft had shown a good performance but they can be occluded and fail to provide a suitable channel for blood to flow. Therefore, understanding mechanical behavior of these materials can give us important insight into their behavior. Some studies have investigated the mechanical properties of SSV and ITA. Compliance and elastic properties of the saphenous vein was investigated by Walden et al [14]. Zamboni et all measured the compliance of the both great saphenous vein and small saphenous vein [15]. Furthermore, Chamiot-Clerc et al compared the elastic mechanical properties of the internal mammary artery to the radial artery [16]. Pressure-diameter, pressure-axial force, circumferential and axial stress-strain relations, and dimensions of porcine

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