Framework of the Study Cognitive Theory Cognitive theory is the dominant theory in instructional design and many of the instructional strategies advocated and utilized by behaviorists are also used by cognitivists. When designing from a behaviorist-cognitivist position, the designer will study the situation and sets a goal. Learning objectives are developed and individual tasks are broken down. In this approach, the designer selects what is significant for the learner to know and recognize, and tries to transfer that knowledge to the learner. Cognitivists consider learners develop learning through receiving, storing, and retrieving information.
In order to determine if HR practitioners can benefit from cognitive theories of learning, it is important to identify whether these theories are suitable for organizations today. Social cognitive theory (SCT) is highly relevant to classroom or formal learning, in which facilitators serve as role-models by presenting the behavior to be learned along with the way to accomplish it, discussing its effectiveness, practising the behavior with the learners and providing corrective feedback (Gibson, 2004). This can help learners develop the necessary mental patterns of suitable behavior. For example, Target stores have successfully utilized behavior modeling techniques in their customer service training programs (Milkovich & Boudreau, 1997). The
The learning frame of reference draws from the work of educational and developmental psychologists, teachers and behaviorists (Turner, 2002). It is founded on the assumption that adaptation and change are based on the ability to learn, and that behaviors are learned through acquisition of knowledge, experience and practice. The main focus in the learning frame of reference is for the person to learn coping skills. Useful approaches within this frame of reference for the case of Sarah would be educative approach and cognitive approach. Educative approach aims to provide the knowledge that clients and carers need in order to allow them to identify a range of options for problem-solving and to make the most appropriate choices of intervention.
The primary point of this model is to allow students to create their own definitions and understanding. The Concept Attainment Model includes following steps: Step 1. Gather Data: Select and Define a Concept through the Concept’s Essential Characteristics Determine if the concept is appropriate and teachable according to this model. The definition should be clear, and the attributes should be identifiable. Determine those qualities that are essential.
In accordance with Piaget’s theory, the learner interacts with objects and events available in the physical and social environment and therefore comprehends the objects or events using the process of assimilation, accommodation and equilibration. The learners, therefore, construct their own conceptualizations and use them to generate solutions to problems. This theory also suggests that humans create and construct knowledge as they try to bring meaning to their experiences. In the differentiated classroom, teachers should facilitate the learning process by organizing learning activities and using variety of aid material according to the level of students’ cognitive structure to enable them to construct knowledge through their
Kolb’s theory of learning styles states that knowledge is created through transformation of experiences. Technology-aided instruction has helped to develop customised learning tools to maximize the benefit. O’Conner (1998) states that it is necessary to examine learning
According to Duffy (2004) it is important for the mentor to facilitate learning needs and assessment by giving the student the opportunity to reflect on their learning needs and assess themselves. It is also arguable that it is important for a student to identify their own learning needs and self-assessment but the mentor needs to adhere to assessment process in order to provide fair and accurate assessment (Walsh 2014). The most important role of a mentor is to assess the progress of a student accurately and identify the learning needs and problems which the student is encountering on a placement at an early stage. (Philips et al 2000). To assess accurately and holistically a mentor should be able to assess the student’s competency through measurable assessment tools and to do assessment process accurately (Embo et al 2015).
The general principles in this theory are; people learn by observing other people’s behavior, learning is an internal behavior which may or may not lead to a behavior, during the learning process, people need to be motivated as well for an action to happen, people set goals for themselves depending on what they have observed from others and lastly, people are able to control their actions depending on the consequences that they have observed from others (Bandura, 1986). Stone (2000:4) in his book states that the core at Banduras cognitive theory is modeling that teaches new behaviors both negative and positive implying that ‘people are products and producers of their environment’
The cone charts the average retention rate for various methods of teaching. The further you progress down the cone, the greater the learning and the more information is likely to be retained. It also suggests that when choosing an instructional method it is important to remember that involving students in the process strengthen knowledge retention. Dale suggests that instructors should design instructional activities that build upon more real-life
61) is worth mentioning, “Curriculum is a general concept which involves consideration of the whole complex of philosophical, social and administrative factors which contribute to the planning of an educational program. Syllabus, on the other hand, refers to the sub part of curriculum which is concerned with the specification of what units will be
Then the third assumption follows closely on new content and can be presented through learning tasks (Vella pp 2-5). In the assumption of learning theory we are making assumptions about learning from different perspectives. From an educator’s perspective, we have made assumptions about the needs and readiness of learners, and assumed that there are best teaching and learning strategies for particular learners under particular learning context. Experiments and research have been conducted to validate the findings. From a learner’s perspective, the learners have assumed that they would be able to achieve the learning goals based on certain learning strategies, that suit their particular learning styles, and under