Smoking Behaviour Model

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Smoking is probably the leading preventable cause of death or bad health around the world, it can also lead to nicotine dependence. The transtheoretical model (TTM) has shown that behaviour change is the most effective when dealing with the cessation of smoking. The TTM consists of five stages of change, with ten process during that time. While in Singapore, the government and media have been trying to cut down the number of individuals that smoke, it has shown that their methods are not working. In fact, is has shown that the number of smokers in Singapore has gone up. This paper looks at how behaviour models can play a part in the cessation of smoking, as well as the theories behind it. action or maintenance stage, to an earlier stage (Velicer…show more content…
The processes of change are the overt (behavioural) and covert (cognitive) activities that individuals use to process through the five stages of change (Prochaska et al., 1992). The experiential processes are used in the early stages, and the behaviour processes are used in the later stages (Velicer et al., 1998). Consciousness raising, is to learn about new information to support the change of healthy behaviour. It is the process where an individual increases awareness about the negative impacts of problem behaviour, and the cures of it (Prochaska, Redding, & Evers, 1996). Education, media campaigns, and feedbacks, can help increase awareness (Prochaska et al., 1992). Environmental re-evaluation is an assessment of how the presence of absence of the problem behaviour affects an individual’s social environment (Velicer et al., 1998). Empathy training, family interventions, or documentaries can be some strategies used to help (Prochaska et al., 1992). Dramatic relief is the experience and expression of an individual’s feelings and emotions…show more content…
Smoking has also been prohibited in all indoor areas, and now even certain sheltered areas. There are designated smoking areas at coffee shops, and shopping centres. Individuals who are caught smoking in prohibited areas can be fined up to $200 for first time offenders, for repeat offenders, the fine is more, and there is a chance of being convicted in court. Singapore has also banned the advertising, sponsorship, and promotion of tobacco products. Since 1991, Singapore has been increasing the tax of tobacco to discourage smoking (Lim, 2004). Cigarette packs also have pictures of the harmful effects of smoking, such as, throat cancer, miscarriage. Schools are also encouraged to have smoking cessation interventions so that adolescents will not pick up smoking, instead of thinking that they can quit anytime. While Singapore has all these policies and prohibitions in place, it has been found that it does not make that big of an impact on individuals that smoke (Subramaniam et al., 2015). Subramaniam and colleagues (2015) found that social influence played a central role in the initiation of smoking, and that adolescents with family members that smoke, are more likely to pick up the habit. In the study conducted by Subramaniam and colleagues (2015), it was reported that instead of caring about the environment, or others, the participants felt that they were being disrespected, and judged
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