Task 1 A plane mirror is a mirror with a flat (planar) reflective surface.  For light rays striking a plane mirror, the angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence.  The angle of incidence is the angle between the incident ray and the surface normal (an imaginary line perpendicular to the surface). Therefore, the angle of reflection is the angle between the reflected ray and the normal and a collimated beam of light does not spread out after reflection from a plane mirror, except for diffraction effects. One of the important characteristic of the image is that it is laterally inverted.
This occurs because the angle at which the rays hit the boundary (called the angle of incidence) determines the angle at which the rays will refract (called the angle of refraction). Light rays are measured from the normal, not from the medium boundary. Snell’s law shows a mathematical relationship between the light’s angles of incidence and refraction, and the refractive indices of the media it travels through: n1sinθ1=n2sinθ2 Where: θ1=angle of incidence θ2=angle of refraction n1=index of refraction of first medium
A: Snell’s law is a formula used to show the relationship between the angles of incidence and refraction, when referring to light or other waves passing through a boundary between two different isotropic media such as water. Q: What is isotropic material? A: These are materials that have identical value of property in all directions. Q: How does speed of light relate to Snell’s law? A: Snell’s law allows us to work out the index of refraction of light through an object.
 This pattern is also linked to Equations 1&2 as stated previously. The position of every fourth fringe was recorded giving the value which is required in Equation 3 below. (See Table1 for the recorded data) Knowing the wavelength of sodium to be 589nm the angle, ,at the apex between the two glass plates can be calculated using Equation 3 as
This causes the wavelengths to decrease and light to ‘slow’ down and change direction, making the light ray’s angle of incidence greater than the angle of refraction. However when light exits the objective lens and into the air, a medium with a lower refractive index, the light rays to go back into ‘normal speed’ the same speed it had before it entered the objective lens, causing the ray's’ angle of incidence to be smaller than the angle of refraction in terms of the normal in the interface of the back of the lens and the air/space in the telescope. The light refracts again as it enters from air into the glass eyepiece lense, going through a more denser medium. Now the eyepiece lens is sometimes a convex lens like the objective lens but it could also be a concave lens, each guiding the light rays in similar paths through the telescope and into your eye. The light rays will then refract again away from the normal as they exit the eyepiece lens and into your eye, meaning light will enter a less dense medium : glass back into
Therefore, the distance from the origin is a fixed proportion of the distance of the line. Based on this, it can be stated that d is the position of the directrix of the conic section considering that the eccentricity is greater than zero and less than one. Furthermore, the equation, r=ed1+e(cos(), is the exact equation for an ellipse in polar coordinates with a directrix at x=d and focal points at both the origin and the negative x-axis, further proving Kepler’s First Law of Planetary Motion: that the shape of the orbits is an ellipse with one focal point being the center of the
Therefore, my result is very close to the actual value. From these results, we can conclude that the relation between tension and wavelength is direct. Consequently, using the data, I proved that my hypothesis was correct and they are related as in the formulas presented.
Thus the delicate part (the mirrors) of the system can be rigidly fixed. The image width at the absorber is ideally the same as projected the projected width of mirror element. Thus, the concentration ratio is approximately the same as the number of mirror elements, ignoring the solar beam spread .As the aperture is fixed and concave in shape ,the mirror strips result in shading with very high or very low sun altitude angles .Also due to strips ,edge losses occur during reflection .However, mirrors can be suitably designed to have less than 10% of the total energy lost over a years time .Some models have shown overall efficiencies in the range of
The other beam reflects off of a flat mirror which allows this mirror to move a very short distance (typically a few millimeters) away from the beamsplitter. The two beams reflect off of their respective mirrors and are recombined when they meet back at the beamsplitter. Because the path that one beam travels is a fixed length and the other is constantly changing as its mirror moves, the signal which exits the interferometer as the result of two beams “interfering” with each other. The resulting signal is called an interferogram. As the interferogram is measured, all frequencies are being measured simultaneously.