Steps one to three is when the energy is invested. Steps four and five involve the glucose splitting into smaller molecules. Steps six to ten is when the energy is released in the form of ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) and NADH (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide). In step one the enzyme Hexokinase uses the ATP to phosphorylate the glucose. This is an investment of energy.
A total 8 cycles takes place in the citric acid cycle which begins with acetyl CoA that condenses with oxaloacetate to produce citrate and at the end of the CAC cycle oxaloacetate is generated again for another cycle. In CAC 2 CO2, 1 GTP, 3 NADH and 1 FADH is produced. CAC is highly exergonic with –50.3 KJ/mol. Acetyl CoA condenses with oxaloacetate that produces 2CO2 and oxaloacetate. 3 NAD+ +6e- + 6H+ is used to produce 3 NADH + 3H+.
Independent Variable temperature 3. Controlled Variables pH, amount of substrate (sucrose) present, sucrase + sucrose incubation time Effect of Substrate Concentration on Enzyme Activity 1. Dependent Variable amount of product (glucose and fructose) produced 2. Independent Variable amount of substrate (sucrose) present 3. Controlled Variables temperature, pH, sucrase + sucrose incubation time 4.
Glycolysis, or anaerobic respiration, is the first phase of sugar breakdown at the cellular level. Simple sugars such as glucose, fructose, and galactose are converted to a three carbon compound called pyruvate. Because this process occurs in the cytosol and does not require oxygen, it is termed anaerobic. The net energy yield from anaerobic respiration is two molecules of ATP. In the absence of oxygen, pyruvate is converted to lactic acid, which is a metabolic dead end.
In this experiment using a respirometer, the scientists were able to measure the amount of oxygen being consumed in relation to how quickly the peas were respiring. Hypothesis If the germinating and dry peas are submerged in baths of water for twenty minutes, then the germinating peas will consume the most oxygen over dry peas. The warmer the temperature surrounding the vials, the faster the rate of oxygen consumption will be due to them requiring a more extensive output
Higher muscle lactate accumulation and venous plasma lactate concentration is observed in a high ambient temperature compared to a moderate temperature. It was previously shown that muscular glycogen utilization is enhanced in during exercise under high temperature (Febbraio et al., 1994). Therefore it is thought that the increase concentration of lactate in muscle under high temperature is caused by accelerated anaerobic glycolysis. Thus more lactate is released into the blood stream. When the exercise to exhaustion in the high temperature happens, muscle glycolygen are not exhausted.
Discussion In Detail The Fate Of Pyruvate Under Different Metabolic Conditions Most organism and most of the types of cells have the similar sequence of reactions from glucose to pyruvate. Opposite to the fate of pyruvate which is variable. There are three reactions of pyruvate that are most important which are the conversion of pyruvate into ethanol, lactic acid or carbon dioxide. Firstly, pyruvate in yeast and several microorganisms will be forming ethanol in an aerobic condition. Moreover, the decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetaldehyde is the first step in the reaction.
Chapter 2 of The poisoner’s handbook by Deborah Blum has an aggressive style. Elements of diction support this style. Some of the elements that support the style are connotation/ denotation, cacophonous, and monosyllabic/polysyllabism. Connotation and denotation help to show the aggressive style of the writing in chapter 2. When describing mustard gas, Blum states the its effect include “searing the eyes into a crusted blindness” (Blum, 2010).
Cardio Respiratory Endurance Cardio Respiratory Endurance is the ability for the heart and lungs to supply oxygen to the body for a prolonged period of physical activity. The area of the body that this takes place in is the cardiorespiratory system (subsists of the heart, blood vessels, and respiratory system). The bellow figure shows the cardiorespiratory system. I tested my Cardio Respiratory Endurance by doing the beep test. As a result, I achieved an average score of 8.5.
“As the ball moves through the air, the air parts around the ball. Behind the ball, the airstreams that separated come back together” (Bend It Like Magnus). To kick the soccer ball farther than normal, the ball needs to be pumped up harder than most other soccer balls (Live-strong). Magnus effect is the force exerted on a fast spinning cylinder or sphere moving through air or another fluid in a direction at an angle to the axis of spin (Magnus Effect/Physics). “The ball is like a rock in a fast flowing river — the water splits around the rock, then swirls to fill in behind the rock, causing turbulence” (Bend It Like Magnus).