In virtually every society in the world, social privilege is reflected by differences in socioeconomic status, gender, geographical location, racial/ethnic/religious differences and age. Pursuing equity in health means trying to reduce avoidable gaps in health status and health services between groups with different levels of social privilege” (World Health Organization 1996, Braveman 2006) 2 “Equity in health is operationally defined as minimizing avoidable disparities in health its determinants-including but not limited to health care- between groups of people who have different levels of underlying social advantage” (Braveman, World Health Organization
Apart from impairment disability is imposed on top because of unnecessary social exclusions and isolations from complete participation in societal roles. (UPIAS 1976p 3–4) The social model was consequently adopted by Disabled People’s International (Siminski 2003). In this model disability is viewed as socially experiencing an impairment due to social and physical barriers(Barnes 1991 p 2)whereas impairment refers to perceived abnormalities of mind or body be it ascribed or real(Barnes 2003 p 829) Therefore, disability refers something wrong with society and not to something with an individual rather (Oliver 1996a p 129).The model implies to cure, change or fix the individuals, especially when it is discriminatory and prejudiced and against the wishes of the disabled person. The problem or disability is caused by the way society responds to the needs of the disabled person. It recognizes that people with impairments are disabled by the barriers, prejudice and exclusion by society.
Based on the above observations, analysis, and discussions on various studies and systematic reviews on Task shifting model, we propose following suggestions while using Task shifting as an alternative survival strategy or health organizations which suffer due to a shortage of professionally qualified medical doctors to treat chronic and long intervention related diseases in their organizations. (1) Strategy for Patient cure & Satisfaction : With the concept of something is better than nothing, patients should get at least minimum care even if there is an acute shortage of qualified physicians, the alternative survival strategy of task shifting is suggested as an optimum solution to the problem. (2) Strategy of organizational sustainability
However, shortcomings with PHRs such as limited availability and accessibility, breaches in confidentiality, rigid format of data and missing data are all noted by Hebda et al (2013). The author has also recognised these limitations on clinical practice, with files physically being misplaced and pages of files being placed into incorrect patient’s charts, causing breaches in confidentiality and possible treatment errors if the correct information is not present. Hawley et al’s work (2014) highlights that EHR in a maternity setting aims to integrate care between General Practitioners, midwives, alternative health professionals and the woman herself. Integration between these care sectors is required for effective and safe management of pregnant women. Ireland is currently implementing an EHR for all women and babies under the care of maternity services.
These facilities greatly helped to benefit the mentally disabled by providing a means of accommodation for them as well as a safe haven from society. Furthermore, additional support was provided when the government health programs Medicare and Medicaid were created which provided long-term care for those in need (Society's Attitude Toward People with Disabilities, n.d.). Although many mentally disabled individuals face struggles and stigmas, existing from the past in today's society, some may say they are treated no differently than others. This can be disproven from a dialogue between Lennie and George in the novel when Lennie questions George stating, ‘“Lennie said, ‘George.’ ‘Yeah?’ ‘Ain't you gonna give me hell?’ ‘Give ya hell?’ ‘Sure like you always done before. Like, ‘If I di’n’t have you I’d take my fifty bucks’”(Steinbeck, 1937/1993, p. 103).
The medical field is filled with opportunities and procedures that are used to help improve a patient’s standard of living and allow them to be as comfortable as possible. Physician assisted suicide (PAS) is a method, if permitted by the government, that can be employed by physicians across the world as a way to ease a patient’s pain and suffering when all else fails. PAS is, “The voluntary termination of one's own life by administration of a lethal substance with the direct or indirect assistance of a physician.”-Medicinenet.com. This procedure would be the patient’s decision and would allow the patient to end their lives in a more peaceful and comfortable way, rather than suffering until the illness takes over completely. Physician assisted suicide should be permitted by the government because it allows patients to end their suffering and to pass with dignity, save their families and the hospital money, and it allows doctors to preserve vital organs to save
The current healthcare system may seem confusing and fragmented to a patient and their family (Choi, P. P, 2015). In lines with the idea of equity and equality, any patient should be able to receive the same quality care despite their background or position in life. Yet, given the imperfect state of our healthcare system, patients who are in a vulnerable position can be marginalized and pressured into unfavorable situations. Nurses, in turn, have a unique power in the healthcare system, which allows them to be the voice for these trivialized patients (Choi, P. P, 2015). This draws on the concept of social justice advocacy.
Typical characteristic of the medical model is labelling. In the centre of this model is a diagnosis that can describe condition (deficit) of a child, not its individual needs. Opposite to this model is the social model. In this model the center is the child and its individual needs regardless of child abilities. Need for rejection of medical model came from disabled people themselves as a reaction on long term continued withdrawing from society.
Michaelis, rightly argues that, it is unethical and dangerous to allow distinctions of "social worth" to influence decisions regarding the allocation of public health resources . The author has rightly given the example of AIDS, initial phase and the groups affected by the public health emergency were seen to be at fault and suffered social stigma because of their lifestyles. Through the epidemic of AIDS we could see how a public health problem that is perceived to be isolated became devastating for the country and the world. Today 's public health system is susceptible to worth based allocation arguments and there are many favoring as well as opposing it. While deciding worth based allocation many factors may play crucial role like Likelihood of benefit to the patient, Urgency of the patient 's need, & the amount of resources required for successful treatment, impact on standard of life of the patient, etc.
Learners are afraid to confide in teachers about HIV/Aids and also feel that they will not be treated same way again. African philosophy encourage us to be more humble and offer help were necessary. (Wood, L. 2008) although the negative effects of the pandemic put additional pressure on an already depleted and struggling educational system, educators have an important role to play in both the prevention of HIV infection and the care and support of those already infected or affected. According to(Wood,L.2008) once the educator is aware of own attitudes towards HIV and Aids and those infected or affected, she will be able to make sure that she create a safe and supportive school and classroom environment that will encourage learners to share with her any problems that might be affecting their ability to concentrate and learn. A human being is a human being through other humans (Higgs, P & Smith, J.