He could have fixated on the positive and negative consequences of a person's actions; such as what impact Euthyphro's prosecution would have on his family. Or, he could have fixated on whether a particular action complies with the rules or not, such as the question of whether his father transgressed a law. These are some approaches of other philosophers. However, these were not Plato's main intrigues; Plato was eager instead to consider, what actions are most salutary for the human soul. As a result, Plato is kenned for his fixate on virtue ethics, an approach to ethics that places highlight on one's moral character.
It examines rational justification for moral judgments, what is morally wrong or right, unjust and just. Philosophy defines ethics as what is good for an individual and the society and establishes nature of duties people owe themselves and one another. Ethics is an attempt to help man live a good life by applying moral principles and also to guide human conduct. It is related to wrongness and rightness with propriety. Ethics is a matter of practical concern that believes
Then, I will explain how Hobbes would counter this argument using examples from his philosophical text, Leviathan. I will be specifically discussing the disregard of emotions such as love and the inherent social nature of humans in relation to Hobbes’ theory. I believe that Hobbes’ view of humanity can be seen as not only positive, but crucial to the explanation of our most irrational emotions. The base of Hobbes’ philosophy is grounded on the idea that, “every man is enemy to every man” (Hobbes 123) and that, “[t]he right of nature” (126) that man possesses is that he may “use his own power as he will himself for the preservation of his own nature” (126). Hobbes argues that naturally, men are in competition with one and other and will do whatever they need in order to survive.
Without these virtues, he believes that a good life could not be obtained. In The Republic, Plato also discussed two different forms of morality; the instrumental theory of morality and the functionalist theory of morality. Within the first form, he states that consequences of one 's action will determine if the action is wrong or right. But in contrast, he argues that this wasn 't correct, and the second form was. In the second form, he believes that everyone and everything has a purpose and that one 's action is morally right or wrong depending on the effect of that purpose.
What is a categorical imperative? Why should one obey a categorical imperative? One main aspect of Immanuel Kant’s Deontological ethics is the philosophy of the categorical imperative. As he explained, the understanding behind the categorical imperative is that, in order for an individual to have moral worth, he must do his duty. In the book, Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals, Immanuel Kant argues that the general concept of morality is divided into two rules of reason.
The republic is an enquiry into the nature of justice. This required redesigning the polis from first principles. Plato argued that truly good conduct and the truly good state have to be based on true knowledge of things in themselves; that is, of the forms or ideas that underlie the world of appearances. Plato seems to have had an unlimited faith in the power of the mind. Plato was looking at justice starting from the individual and then, to make things clearer, in the state.
He divided the power of reason into theoretical and practical aspects. In either aspects reason is a very active faculty (The blackwill guide to kant 's ethics). In its theoretical use reason supplies us with principles that guides us with the understanding of the task of organizing our sense impressions into coherent and understanding patterns. Theoretical reasons provides us with principles that makes coherent perception and empirical scientific investigation possible (The blackwill guide to kant 's ethics).While in its practical use reason does more than seek the best means to whatever contingent desires we passively find ourselves processing, practical reasoning has to do with the exercise of
Summary Plato's Ethics: An Overview Human being is the highest aim of moral thought and conduct, and the virtues are the requisite skills and dispositions needed to attain it. In Plato’s early works his approach on happiness is largely negative. He treats happiness as a state of perfection that is hard to comprehend because it is based on metaphysical presuppositions that seem both hazy and out of the realm of ordinary understanding. In crucial texts Plato’s moral ideals appear both austere and self-abnegating: the soul is to remain aloof from the pleasure of the body. Moral values presuppose an appropriate political order that can be maintained only by leaders with a rigorous philosophical training.
To what extent could Plato’s Republic be or not be justifiably characterized as a closed and authoritarian society without freedom? To begin with, the absolute theoretical basis required for complete understanding of the question and the further speculation on it consists of two important books: “The Republic” by Plato, where the philosopher introduces his conception of an “ideal state” and “The Open Society and its Enemies” by Karl Popper, the summarizing and systematizing overview of the original text. Let us start by considering Plato`s theory of ideal state. The main goal of Plato`s ideal state is an achievement of common good and happiness through the implementation of Idea of justice. By Plato, justice can only exist if every person
One of the central concepts of the ideal state is justice. The function of protecting the ideal state lies on the philosophers. It is the activity of the philosophers that must ensure the invariability of the existence of the ideal state. The division of people into classes has great significance for Plato and determines the existence of the ideal state. The society is divided into three estates: the producers, the guardians, and the auxiliaries.