Discuss the contribution of attachment theory to the social and emotional development of a young child or adolescent. In John Bowlby’s (1969) theory of attachment he outlines the relationship between infant and mother. He believed that human we predisposed create a dyadic relationship. This was not merely a relationship determined by biological satisfaction of needs such as feeding rather an innate desire for comfort and support. This forms a sense of security that the infant uses to explore the work.
Introduction Cognitive psychology refers to the study of mental processes in terms of its influence on individual behaviour. It explains various principles that deal with acquiring, storing, retaining, using, transforming and communicating information (Galotti, 2008). This branch of psychology has to do with the structure and function of our brain and the higher order processes it facilitates. It involves the way individual 's think, perceive, recognize, memorize and pay attention (Olson, 2013). Jean Piaget 's contribution focused on cognitive development through adolescence and the way individuals understand the world by creating concepts and categorizations.
Another key feature of Attachment Theory are internal working models. These working models are created patterns of attachment, usually formed during childhood development, that affect relational attachments in adulthood. These models represent feelings about oneself and others, which contribute to their behavior in their relationships with others. A person’s internal models are usually subconscious, but can change with a cumulative experience, either positive or
Erasmus Mundus Master in Social Work with Families and Children 4th edition - 2016-2018 1st Semester Name: Rojika Maharjan 1. Social work has evolved with different “theories in social work”; either concepts derived from other social sciences such as psychology or sociology or “theories for social work” which are the core philosophy of social work practice specified to give a professional purpose and approach to practice (Healy, 2014). a) Regarding the context of children and families, system theory and strength theory are appropriate. i) System Theory: System theory is defined by the analytical intervention based on the complex social systems such as family, neighborhood, friends, school, employer or bigger social structures surrounding
One concept of transactional analysis is based on three distinct ego states namely, Parent, Adult, Child. Berne (as cited in Hollins Martin, 2011) clarifies that transactional analysis aims to identify which ego states a person is transacting in, and by this, we can determine the pattern of transaction (p. 587). This theory provides an understanding of our personalities and the way we think, feel and behave (UK Association for Transactional Analysis, 2016). Each ego state has specific characteristics that define its concept. Firstly, the parent state is described as behaviour that is formed by external events and influences experienced throughout early childhood.
The children who viewed the male or female adult behaving aggressively to a Bobo Doll were then left alone with the doll and observed to see what type of behaviour they would display and what was shown was that the children that had witnessed the aggression to the Bobo Doll imitated the adult’s aggression. Bandura concluded that learning can take place through observation called vicarious learning however he believed that observational learning cannot be the whole answer as people also have individual differences for example personality and genes. Overall, the study is plausible as it is a well-supported account of development and it can be applied to a wide range of behaviours as children observe every type of behaviour but they only imitate the behaviours that they think that they will benefit from. The Bobo Doll study takes into account cognition as
Lastly, it stressed that cognitive functions are important as well. To prove that same behaviors will be learned by individuals following the action of the models and altering their own behaviors, Albert Bandura conducted a famous experiment, known as the Bobo doll experiment in 1961 (McLeod, 2014). Before the experiment, Albert Bandura made 4 predictions. First, children that observed adult acting aggressively will be more likely to act the same. Second, children that observed non-aggressive adults will be less likely to act aggressively.
This story gives truth to the famous saying “children live what they learn” this is so according to the theory Social Learning fathered by the Canadian – American Psychologist Albert Bandura. Unlike other theories that support the belief that behaviours are inherited, Social learning theory believes that individuals learn from their environment and from each other through imitation, observation and modeling. In a quest to prove this Bandura conducted an experiment in1961 known as the Bobo doll experiment. He had four hypotheses 1.Children witnessing an adult role model behaving in an overly aggressive manner would be likely to replicate similar behavior themselves, even if the adult was not present. 2.
The theories that is applied in the project categorization and self-identification is Richard Jenkins theory about social identity, which is will be used as tool to analyse, and give a subjective understanding of identities through categorization and self-identification and the second theory by Rom Harré, Bronwyn Davies and Luk van Langenhove is applied in order to examine how identity are negotiated as a process. These theories are relevant for this project, in order to achieve and in depth understanding of social identity regarding second-generation immigrants, and how they feel excluded in the Danish society. The project has however analyzed ethnicities among young boys as their main focus, whereas this project has it focus on immigrant’s
However, his emphasis on rigorous experimental techniques and scientific methods did have an important influence in the field of psychology. One of the biggest problems with Hull 's drive reduction theory is that it does not account for how secondary reinforcements reduce drives. Unlike primary drives such as hunger and thirst, secondary reinforcements do nothing to directly reduce physiological and biological needs. While Hull 's theory has largely fallen out of favor in psychology, it is still worthwhile to understand the effect it had on other psychologists of the time and how it helped contribute to later research in psychology. Lewin’s Field Theory Kurt Lewin’s field theory flourished between 1935 and 1960.