Research of over the course 30 years showed that infants are far more competent, social, and responsive and are able to make sense of their environment. Infants are no longer regarded as passive and do not only respond to stimuli (Fantz, 1963). The theory of attachment that was first proposed by John Bowlby (1970) described it as a ‘lasting psychological connectedness between human beings’. He notion that children as young as infant need to develop a secure attachment with their main caregiver. Bowlby’s attachment theories are both psychopathology and normal socio-emotional development.
He also suggested that infants are born with certain behaviours called social releasers which help certify proximity and closeness with the mother such as crying or smiling (Bowlby 1988). Bowlby (1958) suggested that attachment is adaptive as it increases the infants chance of survival in an evolutionary context. The caregiver provides safety and security for the infant. Harlow (1958) argued that attachment develops as the mother provides comfort for them which indicates that infants have a biological touch for emotional comfort and secure attachment with their
Another key feature of Attachment Theory are internal working models. These working models are created patterns of attachment, usually formed during childhood development, that affect relational attachments in adulthood. These models represent feelings about oneself and others, which contribute to their behavior in their relationships with others. A person’s internal models are usually subconscious, but can change with a cumulative experience, either positive or
Attachment theory and romantic relationship The most salient person variable with regards to interpersonal relationships is the contact of attachment style, which is theoretically grounded in Bowlby's attachment theory. Attachment theory posits that when an infant is separated from the primary caregiver or attachment figure (usually the mother). A set of behaviors will ensue which serve the function of regaining proximity to the caregiver. This is known as the separation protest behavioral system (Bowlby, 1973). Separation protest is unique to attachment relationships.
(1991) indicates that the balance between negative and positive feelings is a good indicator of happiness. This suggests the measurement of objective happiness by means of individual balance of positive and negative experiences. Other studies revealed that purely measuring positive emotions, strong implications could be made about the individual happiness level; they can be seen as markers and sources of happiness (Diener, 2005). This is the reason why Seligman only used positive emotions in the PERMA model. Having a valued and worth filling positive life also strongly depends on positive emotions, (Fredrickson, 2001) due to the high correlation of life satisfaction and SWB (Michalos, et al., 2009).
Attachment and how it relates to the development of a person is a highly studied area within psychology and human services, with a focus on the causes and impacts. Attachment can be both a positive and negative experience that differs from each person and phase of life. Both Bowlby and Ainsworth conducted studies to present the concept of ‘attachment theory’ and how this is demonstrated over a person’s lifespan. It gives professionals and carers the information to why people present the way they do and the insight in how to improve outcomes and support behaviour and emotions. Attachment theory is a term used to discuss the relationship between infants and their primary caregivers.
These four attachment theories had general impact on later life secure attachments became able to create meaningful relationships and emphatic. Avoidant become avoided closeness, distant, critical or rigid. Ambivalent became anxious, insecure and controlling. Disorganise become chaotic, aggressive and abusive. This list is just an example and is in no way exact in what will happen in later life.
In order for a human being to have a successful social life in later years, it is of the utmost importance that emotional bonds act as building blocks for development. After some research in his early works Bowlby found some theories suggesting that "attachment was only a behavioural pattern that is picked up during the progression of growing up and developing in the early months of life, and that it was basically due to a feeding relationship between the young child and the mother/caregiver". However, it became apparent to Bowlby that even feedings did not stop the anxiety children go through when they were separated from their mother/caregivers. Instead, he found that attachment was characterized by clear behavioural and motivation patterns. When children feel fearful or detect danger, they will automatically look for comfort and care from their primary caregiver.
3.4./Attachment Theory (188) & Socioemotional Selective Theory (286>). Bjorklund (2015) stated that attachment theory was used to explain the relationship between babies and their parents formerly and the attachments established in infancy were comparatively durable and were repeated in another relationships afterwards in life, it has been employed to illustrate favorable outcome in establishing romantic relationships as well. People who are categorized with security in their attachment would properly have long-term and more cheerful sentimental relationships than others at lower degree of security level, also, we have derived caring of specific age range, that is actuated in elder age of life when connecting with babies and youngsters, majority