2000) on norms formation in groups demonstrates that people who work together over time can converge in their strategic orientations for attacking problems and finding solutions to them. On a adding note, discussing Colemann’s conceptualization of social capital, Edwards and Foley (1998) state that norms and networks held by individuals become social capital and play an important role in facilitating collective action, which are closely related to the n-person Prisoner’s Dilemma (Bicchieri 1990). The so far discussed literature on conceptualization of social norms and cooperative behaviour emphasises that- although they are featuring prominently in theory and empirical research, the nature and formation of cooperative behaviour and norms in relationship to social capital are extremely complex, intangible and
1. THE DETERMINANTS OF PUBLIC TRUST 2.1 Based on Performance Sonderskov and Dinesen (2015) posited that social trust is an important aspect in a democratic institution. It is the willingness of the public to participate in social, economic, and political activities of the state. The author claimed that social trust came from people’s experiences and such trust can be rooted from public’s experiences on the performance of an institution. Performance and the ability of the political leaders to provide public goods contribute to the building of social trust.
He argues that membership sin groups, and involvement in the social networks can be used to improve the social position of the actors in different social fields/classes. A manifestation of these groups is voluntary associations, trade unions, political parties and others. Bourdieu used this to enforce his arguments on, “theory of symbolic power”. He argues differences on social capital can be realized in the different level of cultural and economic capital. In reality, his argument based on the different level of powers actors has on social
Meanings in an identity reflect an individual’s conception of himself or herself as an occupant of that particular position or “self-in-role” (Stryker 1980). Self-verification occurs when meanings in the social situation match or confirm meanings in an identity. Thus, when individuals enact and verify an identity, they simultaneously produce and reproduce the social structural arrangements that are the original source of those
The construct of CQ was introduced by Earley (2002), and Earley and Ang (2003) to explain differences in the effectiveness of individual interactions across cultures. CQ refers to “a form of situated intelligence where intelligently adaptive behaviors are culturally bound to the values and beliefs of a given society or culture” (Earley&Ang, 2003, p. 59) as it is defined as a person’s capability to adapt effectively to new cultural contexts. Meanwhile, Mosakowski et al. (2013) defined CQ as a set of values, attitudes, and behaviors that function together in a system and facilitate working across cultural divides. Early and Peterson (2004) stated that CQ ‘‘is the ability to engage in a set of behaviors that uses skills (i.e., language or interpersonal skills) and qualities (e.g., tolerance for ambiguity, flexibility) that are tuned appropriately to the culture-based values and attitudes of the people with whom one interacts”.
Ulin et al. (2005:99) argue for the analytical power of social network analysis (SNA ) in exploring collective behaviour, attitudes, shared norms and patterns of relations in the context of group affiliation. SNA has developed as an approach for studying ‘social relations’ rather than ‘individual attributes’ as its focus of inquiry consists of a set of nodes (such as organisations and individuals) and the relations/ties between them. SNA involves handling, as well as storing and selection of relational data (cf. Scott 2000:38-53).
1 Talent management and globalization Globalization is driving unprecedented levels of international contact. Companies es-tablish themselves in new markets and bring high performers to new nations to guide their businesses there, while also actively searching out potential high-performing individuals across the globe. Increasing labor mobility allows workers to move across borders to find the best jobs, further increasing diversity. Multinational corporations thus have employees from many nations and backgrounds working together, with all the benefits and challenges that entails. One of the primary challenges of a diverse multinational workforce is the effect of cultural disparity, which, if not managed well, has the potential for conflict
As McWilliam(2014) said, global business is the buying and selling of goods and services by people from different countries. Global business means the company doing trade internationally that they wish to extend their sales to others countries and gain more profit. Actually it is not that easy to form a global company, we should follow and understand the rules and agreements that involved during the global trading. Therefore, a company which wish to form a global business usually have to follow the phase model of globalization which are exporting, cooperative contracts, strategic alliances and lastly, wholly owned affiliates. The purpose of this research project is to examine the strengths and weaknesses of every single phase model of globalization.
According to the knowledge management cycle model (King, Chung and Haney, 2008), knowledge application is accomplished in various different ways, including by means of elaboration, thoroughness (facilitation), innovativeness and collaborative problem-solving. Knowledge can also be applied in the development of new products, research and development, and in the improvement of processes and procedures. Nonaka (1994) stated that internalization processes are those which convert explicit knowledge into tacit knowledge. In terms of such a process explicit knowledge may be embodied in actions and practices, so that individuals acquiring such knowledge can re-experience what others do (Sabherwal and Becerra-Fernandez, 2003). Sabherwal and Becerra-Fernandez (2003) reported that action and practice are both application oriented, internalisation processes can be seen to underlie knowledge application practices.
It is essential that the Social responsibility of the business reflects the social power that the business possesses. The approach is both within the interactive and ethical theories, where the former emphasizes the integration of social demands and the later focuses on the right thing to achieve a good society, (Garriga & Mele, 2004). In the stakeholder approach, the purpose of the firm is to create wealth or value for its stakeholders by converting their stakes into goods and services (Clarkson, 1995), or “to serve as a vehicle for coordinating stakeholder interests” (Evan and Freeman, 1988). Stakeholder approach has been developed as one of the strategies in improving the management of the firm. It is a way to understand the reality in order to manage socially responsible behaviour of a firm.