Following the synopsis of Confucius, benevolence means love, kindness, and spirit that someone gives to all people around (especially to family), and he or she has to do right things in the concept of ritual; propriety is the way people show their humanity, which also signifies ethics, awareness, attitudes to preserve and cherish the lifestyle, also ceremonials of nation and society. According to Charles A. Rarick (2007, p.25), people are expected to be good – natured ones with full of humanity, they should have traditionally valued dedication, loyalty and trustworthiness. Furthermore, not only should men perform their most beautiful sides of their souls and minds in their whole lives, but they also need to help other people to do so. As regards ritual, Confucius asserted that propriety existed among people and their behaviors towards each other (the five relationships), such as children had to retain piety for their parents, brothers and sisters had to build close – knit relationships, husbands and wives should love each other, etc. (Nguyen n.d., p.3).
Don’s style of leading reminds me of the Path Goal Theory. Don is trying to mold the executives to be just like him. He pretty much is authoritative and the executives like it because they like it easier. Don has trained them to like what he does. Peter Campbell is, one of the executives, he really wants Don’s job, but to get it he says Don and him have to work together for him to achieve his goal.
Greenleaf had also pointed out that the concept of Servant Leadership includes values such as Humility and honesty that is centered on four main principles concerning the morality and conscience of the leader himself. These principles include offering sacrifices, commitment to the noble and worthy causes, designing the end goals of the work and finally, having good relationships with others (Freeman
For Mengzi, humaneness in practice that was extended to non-family members was a moral priority that society prescribed for the good person (Chen.L, 2015). In summary, Mengzi is saying that you must love those close to you first, and from this you will extend and learn to love those who are non-family members, and because we are innately and inherently good, this way of loving and caring is morally and ethically good. A support of Mengzi and an argument put forward by himself, is that differential care is more psychologically realistic and is more likely to achieve general
Dale Roach states, “A good communicator aims to make sure that their message is understood.” Dale Roach also implies that “An effective leader listens more than they talk.” A leader obtains the skill of communication by listening to their followers. They would achieve a level of connection with others, and also provide ample channels for two-way communication between the leader and the follower. This includes of sharing information, asking questions, soliciting input and new ideas, and being clear about what he/she wants. A leader would also solicit the follower’s ideas for refinement and reward the followers. Another example, a leader would communicate clear goals for their team, and will give them the authority on how the work it will be done.
The ancient philosophy taught that having good virtue and knowledge would allow the wise to live in harmony with the divine Logos. Stoics believed that an individual’s purpose was to develop a true reality, and used their code of ethics to live a good life. Stoics believed that morality would bring happiness and satisfaction into their lives. Morality is the only appropriate form of good. Mercy, wisdom, courage, friendship, moderation, and nature were important virtues to Stoics.
These leaders are aware of how they think and act and are true to themselves, and they are conscious of how they are perceived by others. Self-awareness and awareness of others are the recurring theme within authentic leadership. Authentic leaders are clear about their own values and moral perspectives, knowledge and strengths and are equally aware of these attributes within others. They are confident, hold a positive view of the future, are resilient and are perceived by others to be of high moral character and place a high importance on the development of employees as leaders. According to Waite etc (2013:486), Wrong and Cummings, have highlighted four underlying components of authentic leadership: (a) self-awareness, (b) unbiased balanced information processing, (c) authentic behaviour or action, and (d) relational
Servant leadership theory: Robert Greenleaf provided with the concept servant leader, a normative theory of leadership, in his book servant leadership: A Journey into the Nature Power and Greatness. Among the distinguish characteristics of the servant leader are service to others and perceptions of trust. According to Greenleaf, the servant leader leads because s/he wants to serve others. He also suggests that people follow servant leaders, accepting their influence because of a high level of trust that gets placed in the leader by their followers (Verrier 32). Characteristics of servant leaders include empathy, stewardship, and commitment to the personal, professional, and spiritual growth of their subordinates (Barnet).
Therefore, the following discussions will disclose some important issues based on a brief comparison. 4.2.1 Individual Level The importance of sustainable leadership is highlighted at the individual level. Leader’s morality, personal value and his or her engagement in self-improvement are characterized as the main elements of sustainable leadership at individual level. Morality: Good morality has been emphasized by all three leaders,who believed that good morality is beneficial for shaping leadership in a good way and could promote the performances of the organization indirectly. They highlighted the importance of the Confucian virtues of “Ren” (benevolence), “Yi” (Rightness) and “Xin”
They are idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation and individual consideration (Doody & Doody, 2012). These four components are absolutely vital for leaders to possess to be successful. Idealized influence is demonstrated when high standards of morality are displayed. Leaders must have the ability to follow the organizations vision but then also maintain a vision of their own. Leaders must also be able to demonstrate that they can perform the same duties as their employees.
By ruling with good morals you are showing the society positive ways. They are able to notice that their ruler is respecting them and being trustworthy; therefore the society will be in harmony and follow in the footsteps of their ruler. It was said that if you promote good relationships than you are able to manage them, not loose the good will of the people, and you become “worthy of being looked up to as the head of the clan” (“Confucius Analects” 3). Confucius also strongly agreed that the role of a ruler was to guide the society rather than trying to control them. He believed that if we didn’t guide them and only punished them they will not get in trouble but they will never have shame for what they have done.