Compare Both Functionalists and Marxists are structural theories, which mean that both Durkheim and Marx believe that people are controlled by institutions in society and that people in society are controlled by external forces. In Durkheim’s case he sees this as a positive thing and in Marx’s case he sees it as a very negative one. Both Functionalism and Marxism are Macro Theories. Macro sociology analysis society on a larger scale and look at the bigger picture, compared to Micro sociology which refers to a level of analysis on a smaller scale, of social groups or units in a larger social
The most significant impact that Marx theory of Marxism is his emphasis on class struggle a division between classes who clash in the pursuit of class interests. The first class, The Bourgeoisie or the materialist class owns and controls the means of production in society. The bourgeoisie developed hegemonic rule by using their economic power to centralise political power and to control all aspects of production including ideology, culture, state apparatuses. The state thus emerged as a repressive instrument, controlled by capitalist interests, to foster the reproduction of a society with a strict social hierarchy and hegemony one that fosters the maintenance of the bipolar class structure. The bourgeoisie has control of industry, or the economic engine of society, but also because those within this class seized state power by creating and controlling the post-feudal political system.
In this Essay I will compare and contrast two major theoretical perspectives in Sociology. The Functionalist theory of Emile Durkheim and the Marxist theory of Karl Marx (Giddens, 2009, p. 72) Sociology is the scientific study of social life. It describes and analyses social behaviour. It seeks to discover how human society has come to be the way it is, and reveal the social forces that shape people’s lives. (Sociology.ie, 2014) Emile Durkheim (1798-1857) was a French sociologist, who was interested in the impact of the industrial revolution on how people behaved in society.
In his writing, he was focused on the social classes struggles for power with the working class against its capitalistic leaders. Marx founded that the market binds the individual producer to the market from which he consumes, as he is dependent on capital for his survival. The worker thus creates a surplus value for the upper class he labors for, helping large-scale industries dominate the market, and creating a larger gap in income inequality, inevitably leading to conflict. With this, Marx took a materialist approach in his philosophy, where he viewed society to be ever changing, and systematically developed in favor of the most dominant productive
Developed in the 19th century by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels was a theory called Marxism. In dictionary terms one can say that Marxism is “a system of economic, social, and political philosophy based on ideas that view social change in terms of economic factors.” (Business Dictionary) But what is Marxism? Let’s look at it this way that if a theory ignores the economic realities of human culture then it is misinterpreting it. For Karl Marx; Historical Materialism was the driving force in society which was a notion involving the distribution of resources, production, material gains and such matters. Therefore, for Marxism attaining and maintaining economic power is what fuels all political and social motives of people.
Structuralism is worried with the general structure of society and the way social establishments go about as a limitation or breaking point and control singular conduct. Structuralism offers a perspective of the individual being controlled by the society they live in; Marx and Durkheim are comparative in that they can both be depicted as structuralisms, and however their individual thoughts are to some degree distinctive. Functionalism, the structural agreement sociological theory is a key theory that was produced by Emile Durkheim, one of the establishing fathers of sociology. This theory considers society to be a user structure of between related social foundations, for example, schools and the lawful framework that is in consistent agreement. Functionalists trust
Major Sociological Theories For centuries Sociologist that provided their differing positions in regards to different social and cultural phenomena. Fascinated by how things relate, philosophers have come up with many arguments supporting the changes in society. To provide a healthier explanation for their positions they create theories backed by studies and observation. A theory is essential as it is a composition of 2 or more concepts. Essential to the world the sociology, Karl Marx has played an instrumental role in the study of society.
Marxism is a comprehensive theory that straddles the social, economic and political spheres. In effect, Marxism is holistic in its approach and considers all three of these fields to be interrelated, and they need to be understood in context of each other (Baylis et al., 2014, 143). It is based on the works of Karl Marx, and other notable authors that contributed to the Marxist theory framework, including Hegel, Engels, Hobson, Lenin and Gramsci. Karl Marx explains politics and social reality in the context of capitalism. He believes that historical development must be understood in light of the historical developments of modes of production (Chigora & Ziso, 2010, 90).
Introduction This essay will be based on the usage of sociological theories of stratification to discuss the extent to which contemporary South African society mirrors any one of the theories. Stratification is a system or formation of layers, classes or categories. Social stratification is described as the way which different groups of people as placed within society. In modern society, stratification is usually determined by income and other forms of wealth but no matter what may determine it, the society’s stratification has significant consequences to its members. The top theories that will be discussed in the essay are structural functionalism, social conflict and symbolic interaction.