Social Cognitive Theory: Self-Efficacy

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Social Cognitive Theory proposes that individuals do not simply respond to environmental influences, but rather they actively seek and interpret information (Nevid, 2009). Individuals “function as contributors to their own motivation, behavior, and development within a network of reciprocally interacting influences” (Bandura, 1999, p. 169). Although Social Cognitive Theory covers many topics such as moral judgment and physiological arousal, research has been primarily focused on self-efficacy, or the beliefs regarding one 's capabilities of successfully completing tasks or goals (Locke & Latham, 2002). According to Bandura (2005), social cognitive theory takes on an agent-like perspective to change, development and adaptation. Bandura describes an agent as someone who intentionally influences one’s functioning and life circumstances; “In this view, people are self-organizing, proactive, self-regulating, and…show more content…
They are contributors to their life circumstances not just products of them” (Bandura, 2005, p. 1). Self-Efficacy was developed by Albert Bandura’s as part of a larger theory, the Social Learning Theory (Ashford & LeCroy, 2010), which has progressed into the Social Cognitive Theory (Levin, Culkin, & Perrotto, 2001). Social Cognitive Theory was presented by Bandura…show more content…
Self-efficacy beliefs differ conceptually and psychometrically from closely related constructs, such as outcome expectations, self-concept, and perceived control. The conceptual distinction that Bandura (1986) drew between academic self-efficacy and outcome expectancies was studied psychometrically in research on reading and writing achievement. Shell, Murphy, and Bruning (1989) measured self-efficacy in terms of perceived capability to perform various reading and writing activities, and they assessed outcome expectancies regarding the value of these activities in attaining various outcomes in employment, social pursuits, family life, education, and

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