The teacher and the learner have distinct responsibilities in the classroom that adds to the desired success of the teaching and learning process. This will be proven by analysing the Brain-based Learning Theory supported by Jensen, The Social Learning Theory introduced by Vygotsky, Scaffolding introduced by Bruner and parts of the Theory of Second Language Acquisition proposed by Krashen. The concurrence between the principles of constructivism and the CAPS and constructivism linking with the lesson wheel will also be discussed. The Brain-based Learning Theory is based on the fact that the brain is “designed to learn in a natural accordance” (2008:4) and that the search for meaning is instinctive for the brain. Brain-based learning is about
Bruner Piaget influenced Bruner on his research about Child development, he believed that learning is an active process and that learners need to develop their own knowledge and ideas using their current or previous knowledge. The effective instruction includes: • Personalized: instruction should relate to learner’s experiences that motivates the student to learn from within one’s self. • Content Structure: Content must be designed so it can be easily grasped by the student. He also called this aspect a “Spiral curriculum” building thinking and learning skills over time to make it deeper and more complex, builds on itself. • Sequencing: An important aspect of material presentation.
A learning theory incorporates principles which aim at explaining changes in human performance, providing a set of instructional strategies, tactics, techniques to select from and the foundation for how and when to choose and integrate the strategies5. Learning theories offer insights into “what promotes learning effectiveness and how students learn”. Learning theories are based on principles that can guide effective teaching practice and facilitate deep versus surface learning”. Thus, to have the disposition that is required to be acquired by the learner, curriculum designers need to consider relevant and appropriate learning theories during curriculum design and implementation. The more learning theories are integrated in the curriculum design process; the more likely learners can be accommodated within the programme.
In addition, Lev Vygotsky Socio-Cultural Theory states that students’ learning could be more effective if it is provided with support or scaffold. Information processing theory supplies the scaffold theory which is also a cognitive theoretical framework that focuses on how knowledge enters and is stored and retrieved from our memory. Cognitive psychologist believed that processes influence the nature of what is learned. They considered learning as largely an internal process, not an external behavior change. They looked into how learners receive, perceive, store and retrieve
The Rationale Feedback is closely related to learning and teaching theories making it a significant element in learning despite the theories that may be adapted. In the learning environment, the purpose of feedback may vary but the tutor is bestowed with the responsibility to provide positive reinforcement to encourage students’ applications of learning in new environments. With feedback, both the student and tutors get to a common ground where success in learning can be quantified. Literature Review From
Each informs the other. It helps me in modifying my teaching strategies and helps my learners in modifying their learning strategies. Therefore, learning and assessment are like two sides of a coin, one cannot exist without the other. I feel that formative assessment in constructivism works best rather than summative because the focus is to improve the quality of a learner than creating evidence of their grades. It assists my learners in learning and helps in identifying their strengths and weaknesses.
SELF ASSESSMENT AUDIT Brown and Glasner (2003, p. 1-12) discuss the fact that assessment methods and requirements probably influence how and what students learn more than any other single factor. They state that through building up evaluative skills and self-assessing, students can become more effective learners. They further insist that: "Self assessment is inevitable when students are reviewing their own development and performance, when there is a reflective component, when critical incident accounts are used, and anywhere where progression and added value are discussed." An important, and essential, area of the self-assessment process is personal and professional skills. Opportunities to learn and develop are everywhere; so how can we tell if we are gaining knowledge, skills and abilities from what we are seeing, hearing and experiencing?
Self motivation beliefs These beliefs centre the student and allow for the completion of the forethought phase. Self-efficiency which in this case is students’ belief about their ability to learn a task (Zimmerman 2002) , is a key element in these beliefs. "Self-efficacy is extremely important for self-regulated learning because it affects the extent to which learners engage and persist at challenging tasks. Higher levels of self-efficacy are related positively to school achievement and self-esteem.” (Schraw et al, 2006) Outcome expectations can be regulated by the teacher for example, if a student can see how a certain task is relatable to how she will use it in the future she is more likely to want to acquire the proposed knowledge. Performance The performance phase is generally seen as two separate disciplines.
Introduction Enhancing learning for students involves more than just being able to apply general learning and teaching principles or guidelines. In Educational Studies 1: Classroom Learning and Student Development, we have been learned about how students learn. Most importantly, it involves inquiry-based activities which familiarize us with the roles of teachers in promoting learning and catering for student diversity and individual differences. Throughout the past lessons, one of the most influential, inspiring theories is the theories of motivation to understand and improve educational processes, which means helping our students see the true value of what they are doing and giving them reasonable expectation of success in achieving it.
In recent years, self-assessment has received a lot of attention. Stiggins, Arter, Chappuis, and Chappuis (2007) define self-assessment as the process during which students identify their own strengths and areas for improvement and set goals for future learning. Self-assessment is a type of assessment for learning, thought to lead to effective learning (Boud, 2005; Stiggins et al., 2007). Effective learning involves learners being able to judge their own performance and monitor what is known, what remains to be known, and what is needed to bridge the gap between the two (Boud, 2005). Student self-assessment can increase the use of self-regulated learning strategies (i.e., set objectives, evaluate progress to their objectives, and improve the quality of their learning outcome) (Panadero, Brown & Strijbos, 2015; Kostons, Van Gog & Paas, 2012 ; Brookhart, Andolina, Zuza, & Furman, 2004).