This theory is adopted for this study because it covers the needs of school administrators in relation to school safe environment. The need for achievement enables school administrators to adopt good management practices. The need for affiliation highlights the need for administrative staff to create conducive school / community relationship to solve problems arising in the school and need for power ensures that the administrative staff influences and control the activities or actions of subordinates for improved and increased performance in the
Challenging behaviour is a problem that teachers face regularly in their settings. According to Fox, Dunlap, Hemmeter, Joseph and Strain (2003), the best way to solve problem behaviours is by encouraging social and emotional development. Hemmeter, Ostrosky, and Corso (2012) suggest that these skills are important because children who can express their emotions appropriately can also find effective ways to solve problems they encounter socially and are less likely to display challenging behaviours. These skills as essential for school, as they support friendship, emotional literacy, assist with problem-solving, collaboration and anger management. It also helps to recognise others emotions, supports self-regulation.
A sizable literature provides evidence that strong and supportive relationships between teachers and students are fundamental to the healthy development of all students in schools (e.g., see Birch & Ladd, 1998; Hamre & Pianta, 2001; Pianta, 1999). Positive student–teacher relationships serve as a resource for students at risk of school failure, whereas conflict or disconnection between students and adults may compound that risk (Ladd & Burgess, 2001). Although the nature of these relationships changes as students mature, the need for connection between students and adults in the school setting remains strong from preschool to 12th grade (Crosnoe, Johnson, & Elder, 2004). Furthermore, even as schools place increasing attention on accountability
The teacher should be able to instill the values of solidarity in self pupils from different backgrounds and ethnic groups. Teachers can do that through teaching and learning activities that provide opportunities for students to interact and collaborate directly. Students will learn in harmony to solve problems or tasks assigned by the teacher Such an approach would lead to the inculcation of the values of harmony, unity and mutual respect, highlighting the uniqueness and special characteristics of various ethnic cultures, and learning environments that foster and appreciate the differences between ethnic groups. Learning situations such as this indirectly will encourage students to want to go to school. They are eager to play, learn and collaborate with their peers regardless of skin color and religion,
Assessment FOR learning is more commonly known as formative & diagnostic assessments. Assessment for learning involves teachers using evidence about students' knowledge, understanding and skills to conduct the class. It usually occurs throughout the teaching and learning process to clarify student learning and understanding. It reflects a view of learning in which assessment helps students learn better, rather than just achieve a better mark. It provides effective feedback that motivates the learner and can lead to improvement and is inclusive for all learners.
III. Literature review Role of leadership There are ample of studies resulted that parental involvement is a positive factor for student success in school. In the research by Grolnick, Friendly, and Bellas (2009), the result showed that the families could have a strong influence on student’s educational outcome in school, such as a positive enthusiasm and well development. Thus, the role of parents is an essential part in their children’s education. When the parents show their support in their children education, the children will realize the importance of learning in school.
This behavior is then transferred to adulthood as they and they will be the ones representing clubs and other communities in activities such as sports and other games that will require them to work cooperatively. According to Spencer (1994) Cooperative Learning (CL) is a successful teaching strategy in which small teams, each with students of different levels of ability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject. Students work through the assignment until all group members successfully understand and complete it. Cooperative Learning is important in the classrooms; it allows students to learn from each other. The school where I did my observation has a strong philosophy regarding how best students learn; it states that the teachers will encourage students to develop a critical thinking skill towards learning, so they can acquire knowledge that will help them perform at their best.
As a matter of fact, it is fruitful to use interactive activities with aims of improvement to adapt the plan with students’ necessities completing learning strategies successfully. As a result, active learning instructional strategies can be created and used to engage students in thinking critically in a creative way; such as writing, speaking in groups or individually. Usually, group activities encourage shy / timid students to give their opinions freely about a specific topic. Meanwhile students communicate their ideas, the teacher keeps track on students coordinate their ideas / knowledge to express themselves. Particularly, the teacher focus in accomplishment of activities purpose instead of criticizing and point students’ mistakes / failures.
Some components of teacher efficacy include: developing an organized classroom environment that is supportive of positive and meaningful learning, positive beliefs and development of instructional activities in different domains of learning, engaging the involvement of parents and sourcing resources needed for learning tasks, and redirecting negative influences that may affect the flow of the academic accomplishments of students (Marat, 2007, para. 3). A strategy that can be utilized by administrators in assisting teachers in developing a high degree of teacher efficacy involves providing information on the relevance of learning in students lives. This strategy of providing information on the relevance of learning in the lives of students would be undergirded by a series of workshops that would expose teachers to components of quality and effective learning, the nature of the pubescent child, the role of culture in the process of assimilation and equilibration and how learning can be developed and supported by positive self-beliefs among students with low-self image. Workshops would be conducted for three hours per week and would involve a reflective component where teachers selected for this
In sharing their ideas, students take ownership of their learning and negotiate meanings rather than rely solely on the teacher's authority (Cobb et al. 1991). Additional benefits of using the think, pair, share strategy include the positive changes in students' self-esteem that occur when they listen to one another and respect others' ideas. Students have the opportunity to learn higher-level thinking skills from their peers, gain the extra time or prompting they may need, and gain confidence when reporting ideas to the whole class. In addition, the "pair" step of the strategy ensures that no student is left out of the discussion.