The authors focused on the Social stock of knowledge with greater institutions, groups and their tendencies unlike earlier theories that had been developed by the likes of Max Weber, Karl Marx among others who had focused on scientific and theoretical knowledge on smaller groups. Other authors and researchers come forth to support or dispute the ideologies of Berger and Luckmann. Ross & Mirowsky (1984) carried out an investigation on social construction of reality in reference to a marriage. Just as Berger and Luckmann (1966) held Ross and Mirowsky historical actions and interactions are important in social construction of reality. However, in their study they deduced that marriage perception is not a concrete reality and a husband and wife may differ on how they view it.
The stages help me to solidify in my mind what might be going on in a person’s life at a given time. His stages fit with what I imagine each age group is grappling with psychologically at each stage. The two theories are alike in that they attempt to explain human behavior, but they approach it from 2 different schools of thinking. The two theories are like in that they both have a social context to them. I believe that both are valid, and both can help to explain why we do what we do.
To engage our knowledge about this, we have to start by asking what kind of people who join NRM’s in the first place, in other words who? Previously the so called ”brainwash” theroies have been a popular explanation. These theories claim that individuals who join NRM’s have been brainwashed, and propose that they have been susceptible to new ideas because their critical facilites and ego strenght have been weakened. This is considered a result of overstimulation of the nervous system, forced condessions and so on. These theories, however, have noot been accepted by social scientists.
The sociological perspective is the study of human life and social interactions, it also studies how those interactions mould groups and society as a whole. A sociological perspective goes past the manifest and challenge what is accepted as common-sense. Since sociologists analyze social phenomena at different levels, they come up with different perspectives to understand social life, social change and the social causes and consequences of human behaviour, each uniquely viewing society in their own way. In this paper we are going to look at the main sociological perspectives. Functionalism, is a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability .
He argued that one of the main tasks of sociology was to transform personal problems into public and political issues or vice versa. To have sociological imagination is to have “vivid awareness of the relationship between experience and the wider society" (Mills 2). Overall, sociological imagination is the concept which is based on social locators. As mentioned previously, there is a difficulty to grasp control on class, gender, and race because a person is born into these three categories. In a practical sense, my personal choices are shaped by my social locators.
Regardless of the term, it is evident that many people fail to see that an individual is anything but singular or guided by a single motivation; each of us is an amalgamation of many motives and influences that can be described using three realms: history, biography, and social structure. These three terms are the centerpiece of the sociological imagination, a tool created by American sociologist Charles Wright Mills to analyze the social world.
He was focous on individual and culture he also focus on individual and their action. Methodology Weber was concerned with the question of objectivity and subjectivity.  Weber distinguished social action from social behavior, noting that social action must be understood through how individuals subjectively relate to one another. Study of social action through interpretive (Verstehen) must be based upon understanding the subjective meaning and purpose that individuals attach to their actions. Social actions may have easily identifiable and objective means, but much more subjective ends and the understanding of those ends by a scientist is subject to yet another layer of subjective understanding (that of the scientist).He was basically influenced on social research and social theory .
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Countless psychologists have theorized about human behavior, but few theories have had the impact that Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs has had. Maslow was looking to explain the motivation behind people’s actions. He developed his theory to represent the needs people need to meet to be comfortable in their living situations. Based on Maslow’s theory, phycologists can determine why people partake in the actions they do. For example, people who do not feel belonging and love as children are more likely to join gangs or other organizations to gain a sense of belonging.
Psychologists are debating and trying to figure out whether the social identity theory, a theory developed by Tajfel Turner (1979) for the examination of intergroup relations, is a robust way of explaining behaviour. There has been many research studies in the past that proves that it is a robust way of explaining behaviour. Social identity theory explains human behaviours such as in-group favouritism, and ethnocentrism. Ethnocentrism is the act of believing that one’s social group is centrally important, and that all other groups are below them on the social pyramid. In this case, one will judge other groups on their ethnic group, language, religion and behaviour.
The two cases presented to us, bring to light the concept of social facts-ways of acting, thinking or feeling that are external to individuals and have their own reality outside the lives and perceptions of individual people. These social facts are intangible and exercise a coercive power over individuals, which is often not recognized by individuals as they generally comply with social facts, in the belief that they are acting out of their own will. According to Emile Durkheim, suicide was such a social fact which could only be explained by other social facts, thereby making it sociological in nature. The first case talks about a 22-year-old- first year analyst (Sarvshreshth Gupta) at the Goldman Sachs office, who, overwhelmed by the all-nighters and the 100-hour work weeks, committed suicide on the famous